B-26 Marauder over Germany
This Martin B-26 Marauder has just bombed the railway yards at Haslich, east of Strasbourg. The pilot and co-pilot, just visibile in the cockpit were First Lieutenant E. J. Liebendorfet and Second Lieutenant L. E. Savage.
List of Martin B-26 Marauder operators
This is a list of Martin B-26 Marauder operators. The main user of the Martin B-26 Marauder was the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF). During this period the Martin Marauder was also operated by the US Navy, Free French Air Force, the South African Air Force and the Royal Air Force serving with many units and in many different theaters of conflict on several continents.
|List of Martin B-26 Marauder operators|
|B-26B Marauder in flight|
A Marauder Mission Over Normandy
Howard Weingrow (back row, middle) with crewmates Wilson Cushing (left), Arnold Hart (front row, middle), James Boxell (third from right), Jack Brooks (second from right) and Rollin Childress (right) on June 23, 1944.
On June 6, the world marks the 75th anniversary of D-Day, the Allied invasion that landed 156,000 troops in Normandy and began the liberation of Western Europe from the grip of Nazi Germany.
Two days after the invasion began, my grandfather Howard Weingrow and his crewmates flew a harrowing bomber mission to support Allied ground troops trying to push inland. They were tasked with destroying fuel for German tanks stored near Caen. It was an important part of the Allied effort to hinder counterattacks, since by June 8, “the Allies were ashore, but nowhere did [they] have enough depth in their position,” according to Robert Citino, a senior historian at the National WWII Museum.
The plan was for dozens of twin-engine B-26 Marauders to hit the fuel dump. But densely overcast skies made it almost impossible for my grandfather’s group of bombers to stay together after leaving their base in Chipping Ongar, England.
“We circled for about ten minutes trying to pick up our formation, but all we could drag together were three other ships,” my grandfather wrote in a journal of his Marauder missions. Another bomber crashed while returning to base, killing five men.
I found these journal pages in a small box of war memorabilia my grandfather handed to me several years ago. Like many veterans his age, he spoke sparingly about his wartime experiences he was proud, but attention made him uncomfortable. After his death, I began digging deeper and learned—with help from military archives, historians, reunion newsletters and details from his crewmates’ families—why this flight was seared into their memories.
Howard Weingrow, the author’s grandfather, in Paris in January 1945.
The crew for that mission came from around the U.S., from big cities to farm country. Capt. Rollin Childress, the pilot, was a 23-year-old from tiny Etowah, Tenn., where his father was a railroad engineer. Navigator John Duffy Jr. was raised by his mother in rural southern California. Co-pilot Jack McHenry was killed flying with another crew a week after the mission, according to Alan Crouchman, an amateur Marauder historian in the U.K.
Tailgunner Jack Brooks from Minneapolis, who died in a military plane crash in 1949, “was a flying fanatic,” recalled his brother Gail Brooks, a 93-year-old veteran of bomber missions in the Pacific. Bombardier Wilson Cushing, from Rochester, N.Y., was a former Triple-A baseball player and the son of an Italian immigrant father who Americanized their former surname, Cusani. And my grandfather, a radio operator and gunner, was a Brooklyn-born 21-year-old from a Jewish immigrant family, an only child who lost his father at a young age.
On June 8, their meager group roared onward through foul weather and rain squalls, flying so low over the English countryside that they had to watch for church steeples. Capt. Childress, who would receive the Silver Star for the mission, radioed for instructions, and what happened next is uncertain. According to an Army intelligence officer’s account, Childress didn’t receive the news: Bomber Command had issued a general recall. My grandfather would write that they were told to keep going.
The bombers faced tough odds. Bombing at low altitude would make them more vulnerable to antiaircraft fire, and the small group had little firepower to defend against any fighters lurking in the clouds. “Against these deadly serious hazards, Captain Childress balanced the importance of the target to the men on the beachhead,” the intelligence officer’s account said. “He continued.”
&ldquo The B-26 Marauder was a controversial plane with a troubled history. &rdquo
He flew a controversial plane with a troubled history. The B-26 was rushed into production by the Glenn L. Martin Co. in Baltimore before the U.S. entered the war, skipping the prototype phase. While the Marauder was a fast, state-of-the-art plane, early versions had flaws, including hydraulic problems and propeller malfunctions. It took off and landed at high speed and was a handful for inexperienced fliers training losses were common.
But the plane won converts in combat, where it bombed bridges, rail yards and launch sites for Germany’s V-1 flying bombs. The Marauder proved it could take a beating, getting its crews home even with an engine shot out and a fuselage full of holes. One Marauder currently under restoration at the Smithsonian, named “Flak-Bait” by its crew, survived more than 200 missions and 1,000 patches to fix damage from antiaircraft fire.
Marauders wound up with the lowest loss rate among U.S. bombers, according to Jeremy Kinney, who curates the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum’s World War II collection. “It would bring you home,” said Randall Murff, who was the bombardier in the number two plane during the June 8 mission. Now 99 years old, he spoke to me from North Carolina, where he lives in a nursing home.
As they headed toward their target, my grandfather wrote, he shot off flares to keep the planes together and warn Allied ships in the English Channel. When he exhausted the flares, he flashed a signal lamp from a window in the plane’s fuselage. Writing to Duffy five decades later, Childress recalled marveling at the Allied armada below.
Improving weather allowed the Marauders to reach 6,000 feet over France, but that was only about half their typical bombing altitude. The men could feel explosive concussions when they made a direct hit on the fuel dump. The Germans were alerted: “I remember distinctly thinking we better get out of here as fast as we can,” said Mr. Murff. “We had torn up everything we hit.”
B-26 Marauder bombers drop bombs over Germany during World War II.
Antiaircraft fire ripped into the number four plane, piloted by Capt. Charles Schober. Crewmen from other planes described seeing the nose sheared off, its engines aflame—and then an explosion. The entire crew was lost. “They cut Schober’s plane in two,” Mr. Murff said.
The three remaining planes were still in peril. “Everywhere we turned we encountered the same fierce flak,” my grandfather wrote. “I thought we were being torn apart. I prayed like hell.” They had another tough trip over the Channel on the way home, once again dodging ships as they flew through bad weather.
They made it safely to base, but my grandfather, completing just his third mission, didn’t believe he’d survive the war. In fact, he endured 62 more missions, including costly sorties during the German counteroffensive in the Battle of the Bulge. Many decades later, I read to him a passage from his journal about the flak that he saw take down many planes. He started to tear up and changed the subject. “God, why do all these swell boys have to get it?” he would write about another mission, in December 1944, when eight Marauders were shot down.
Howard Weingrow came home from Europe, met and married Muriel, the woman who would be his beloved wife of 70 years, and became a successful businessman and the patriarch of a family with 12 great-grandchildren. He won the Distinguished Flying Cross for his “ingenuity and steadfast devotion to duty” on that June 8 mission, when the planes bombed “with outstanding success,” the War Department said in a 1945 letter.
The men who fought these battles are fading fast, with about 350 World War II veterans dying each day, according to the Department of Veterans Affairs, and many will take memories like this mission with them. When my grandfather died in 2017, at the age of 94, he was the last survivor of that June 8 crew.
Write to Jon Kamp at [email protected]
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B-26 Marauder over Germany - History
TELLING THE STORY OF THE MARAUDER MEN OF ESSEX.
Marauder B-26C-25-MO 41-35253 RJ-S “Mr. Shorty”
The Boxted Airfield Historical Group is honoured to have in their custody the largest surviving piece of a B-26 Marauder in the UK. It is on loan to our museum by kind permission of the Trustees of Marks Hall, which was the HQ of the 9th Air Force and the Operations Room for the 323rd Bomb Group to which it was allocated in Spring 1944.
The remains comprise the section of fuselage to the rear of the mid-upper gun turret, about 10 feet in length. It includes the couplings for the tail plane and fin and contains the power-assisted tail gun turret assembly and ammunition feeds.
Its story is one of survival. It ended the war with 96 combat missions, survived being broken up at RAF Burtonwood in June 1945 and a subsequent transfer to a scrap yard in Warrington where it was discovered and recovered in 1974. It then survived storage at the Imperial War Museum Duxford to be acquired by the Rebel Air Museum then operating at Andrewsfield airfield and subsequently at Earls Colne airfield. It survived that museums closure in 1997 and entered a period of storage until 2011.
This aircraft was assigned to the 454th Bomb Squadron, 323rd Bomb Group, and took part in the 323rd's last mission of the war to Erding Aerodrome on April 25, 1945. The aircraft was given several names over the years, including "Black Magic IV" and "Mr. Shorty" at various points of time. It's Battle number (painted on the side of the fuselage) was RJ-S. Its prime crew was captained by Lt. Dick Gray who named it “Mr. Shorty” after his first son. It is now the star attraction in our Marauder collection at our airfield museum.
We also have a growing number of interesting items in our collection of B-26 Marauder parts on display.
This is the most comprehensive display of Marauder items in the UK.
Further information on the history of the fuselage is available on this discussion forum thread.
This B-26 Marauder Bomber Was Too Tough To Bring Down
During WWII 5,283 Martin B-26 Bombers were built and flown against the enemy in both the European Theater and the Pacific. But there was one of those planes that flew twice as many missions as any other bombers in the European Theater of WWII.
The B-26 Marauder bomber had a pilot and a 3 man crew, including a bombardier/navigator and 3 gunners one in the nose, one on top and one in the tail. This article and video is about one particular B-26 Marauder that would fly over 2,000 missions throughout the war, including many missions over the Ploesti Oil Fields and other German targets, as well as Normandy and at the Battle of the Bulge.
Source: YouTube/Dark Docs
The B-26 Marauder Bomber was a massive aircraft.
The plane could carry a 4,000-lb. load of bombs and was not the most agile or elegant of the bombers over the European Theater. Before dropping their bombs they would have to fly a straight line over the target and they could easily be targeted then by the German anti-aircraft guns. But this particular B-26 Marauder bomber would take on a life and a mythic quality all its own.
It flew so many missions and took so many hits that it took on a very particular and telling name: “Flak Bait.”
Source: YouTube/Dark Docs
The cockpit and nose cone of “Flak Bait.”
On five of its missions over bombing targets “Flak Bait” was used as a decoy to draw the German anti-aircraft fire away from other bombers. On one occasion it came back with over 1,000 holes in its skin. On two occasions it completed its mission on only one engine. On another, it made it back with one dead engine and the other on fire.
Source: YouTube/Dark Docs
On many occasions, the Germans tried to shoot the bomber down, but to no avail.
The B-26 pilots and crews knew that once they got over a target, they had about 17 seconds before the Germans could target them and about 13 seconds before they began taking hits from the anti-aircaft guns.
But this was not their only problem.
Source: YouTube/Dark Docs
During the Normandy invasion, “Flak Bait” flew three missions with three different crews in 24 hours.
They would also have to fight off the German fighter planes that came up after them. On one occasion a German fighter opened up on “Flak Bait” with a frontal attack. One of the cannon bullets entered the nose of “Flak Bait” and shot through the instrument panel and wounded the Farell and his bombardier. Though they were wounded, they were still able to bring “Flak Bait” back again from yet another mission.
During the Normandy invasion, “Flak Bait” flew three missions with three different crews in 24 hours taking out bridges and attacking several other German positions. She flew in support of the entrapped soldiers at the Battle of the Bulge as well.
Source: YouTube/Dark Docs
“Flak Bait” made all the other bombers look like rookies.
In April 1945, “Flak Bait” flew and completed her 2,000th mission and by the end of the war would fly yet another 207 missions. “Flak Bait” gave a new meaning to the old Timex commercial ad slogan, “Takes a lickin’ and keeps on tickin’.”
“Flak Bait” made all the other bombers look like rookies and “newbies” with her long, indefatigable career. You can imagine the awe and respect that those flight crews and bomber wings had for this pugnacious airplane.
The Veterans Site is honored to remember this noble, old, sky-warrior of WWII, “Flak Bait.” She was flown by incredible crews, but her own seeming invincibility belonged to her alone. She could not be shot down. She was a beautiful beast.
Provide food and supplies to veterans at The Veterans Site for free! &rarr
History: Martin B-26 Marauder
The Glenn L. Martin Company's Model 179 answered a January 1939 Army Air Corps specification for a high-speed bomber. The Army ordered the streamline twin-engine, all-metal monoplane, designated the B-26 Marauder, in September and the first production example flew in November 1940. The design incorporated several new innovations. The high wing loading of the design and the resultant increased landing and take-off speeds caused many accidents in training. Intimidating epithets such as the "Widow Maker" and "One-a-Day-in-Tampa-Bay" added to the B-26's initial reputation as it underwent Congressional scrutiny.
As those problems were being resolved, Marauders immediately went into combat after American entry into World War II. On June 4, 1942, Army Air Forces (AAF) Marauders defending Midway Island attacked Japanese aircraft carriers with torpedoes, but failed to score hits. The AAF sent Marauders to North Africa after the Allied invasion in November 1942 for service with the Twelfth Air Force. Eighth Air Force B-26s flew the first bombing mission against German forces in Europe on May 14, 1943. In preparation for the invasion of France, the Eighth's Marauders were transferred to the Ninth Air Force, the primary American tactical air force in Europe, in October 1943.
Like the M1 Garand combat rifle, the Sherman tank, and the LST, the Marauder was an important weapon in the war against the Axis powers. B-26 crews flew over 100,000 sorties and dropped approximately 150,000 tons of bombs, primarily against Nazi Germany. The AAF lost fewer Marauders than any Allied bomber it flew—less than one-half of one percent. Besides the United States, the air forces of Great Britain and France operated Marauders in combat. Few Marauders survive today out of the 5,266 produced by Martin.
Inside the B-26
A B-26 Marauder with flak damage to the No. 1 engine nacelle, left wing and wheel well, Sept. 1943. Note the missing landing gear doors. This plane was assigned to the 37th Bomb Squadron, 17th Bomb Group, 12th Air Force. U.S. Air Force photo
Vining, who was wounded when shot down by a German jet, said that the interior of the Marauder “was a mix of ‘new car smell’ combined with ‘hot metal smell’ it’s difficult to describe.”
Despite a superb war record, most Marauders were put out to pasture once the fighting ended. When the newly-independent Air Force changed some aircraft terms in June 1948, it took one step which has sown confusion ever since. With the last Marauder gone, the service re-assigned the B-26 appellation to a different plane, the Douglas A-26 Invader – which remained in service under the B-26 designation well into the 1960s. Both aircraft with the B-26 nomenclature enjoyed distinguished careers, but over the years the Marauder has become the less recognized of the two.
“The thing that’s easy to overlook is that we were relatively comfortable in an aircraft where we had enough room to turn around, stretch, and loosen up our bodies once in awhile. A full and robust crew was just what we needed in the challenging environment in Europe. And, yes, the Marauder was a grand old lady in another way. She could sustain damage and bring you home. The one time mine didn’t, it was shot to pieces from one end to the other.”
Robert F. Dorr is an author, U.S. Air Force veteran, and retired American diplomat who.
Thank you for the interview and trying to set the record straight.
But you haven’t yet explained why it had such a bad reputation.
Are there going to be further articles explaining the USAAF’s deliberate campaign to ruin the Marauder’s reputation, NTM Martin’s, rather than admit it was their fault?
There’s lots of proof out there (including the smoking guns in Flight Journal some years back), and it’d be nice after70 years to have the USAF admit they screwed up, covered up, and flat out lied ever since.
What an enjoyable piece. The B-26 Maurader is my favorite WW II aircraft. My Uncle, William L. Cardwell, was a B-26 pilot. However, in the last leg of their ferry flight from the U.S. to England, his plane crashed in bad weather on mountain in Wales.
I’ve done a lot research and believe, as do many, the Maurader has not had its due in the history books. I think someone should make a movie and call it “Flak Bait”. It should, as did the movie “Memphis Belle,” tell the story of the Maurader Men and the plane with the best “get you home in one-piece” record of any bomber in the war.
Thanks again and many happy landings.
Thanks to Mr. Cardwell for these thoughts. I would love to see that movie if it’s made with real airplanes and not just electrons. Having participated in negotiations for a Hollywood version of “Hell Hawks,” unsuccessfully, I would urge you not to count on ever seeing it on the silver screen. If it isn’t geared toward 14-year-olds with toilet jokes, an exploding building and a car chase, it isn’t going to become a motion picture. It sure would be a great one, though.
France [ edit | edit source ]
All six squadrons below were operating under command of 42nd Bombardment Wing of the US 12th Air Force.
A B-26 from GBM 1/22 shot down somewhere in the desert of North Africa during World War II.
South Africa [ edit | edit source ]
- 3rd Wing, North African Air Forces , North African Air Forces , North African Air Forces , North African Air Forces , Balkan Air Force , North African Air Forces
United Kingdom [ edit | edit source ]
United States [ edit | edit source ]
- First Pathfinder Squadron Α] based in Europe flew last ever B-26 Mission May 3, 1945. , Β] included the 449th, 450th, 451st and 452nd Bomb Squadrons based in Europe Theater.
- Ώ] including the 2d, 19th, 33rd and 408th Bombardment Squadrons.
- , ΐ] operated by the 654th Bomb Squadron at RAF Watton, England from 1944-1945.
B-26s of the 323d Bomb Group taking flak over France in 1944
- , Γ] included the 453rd, 454th, 455th and 456th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater. , Δ] included the 494th, 495th, 496th and 49th Bomb Squadron based in European Theater.
B-26 Marauder of the 555th Bomb Squadron returning to England after a raid over Germany 1944
- , Ε] included the 552nd, 553rd, 554th and 555th Bomb Squadrons based in Europeam Theater. , Ζ] included the 556th, 557th, 558th and 559th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater. , Η] includes the 572nd, 573rd, 574th and 575th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater. , ⎖] included the 584th, 585th, 586th and 587th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater.
B-26 of the 397th Bomb Group conducting pre D-Day strikes over Normandy
- , ⎗] included the 596th, 597th, 598th and 599th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater. , ⎘] included the 644th, 645th and 647th Bomb Squadrons based in European Theater.
- (Composite) ⎙] included the 73rd and 77th Bomb Squadron based in Alaska and the Aleutians.
- , ⎚] including the 34th, 37th, 95th and 432nd Bomb Squadron based in North Africa. , including the 437th, 438th, 439th and 440th Bomb Squadron based in North Africa.
The first and second flights of a squadron of the 320th Bomb Group taken from a third flight wing ship.
Belle Ringer, #22 (42-107534) of the 441st Squadron, in the lead of this flight, she flew over 100 missions and survived the war
B-26 Marauder over Germany - History
B-26B-4-MA "Tondelayo/Mister Period Twice"
Unit: 452nd BS, 322nd BG, USAAF
Serial: DR-T (41-17995)
Bury St.Edmunds, UK, on May 14th 1943.
Unit: 451st BS, 322nd BG, 9th AF, USAAF
Serial: ER-V (42-107685)
Great Sailing, UK, June 1944.
This is a closeup from a 1943 portrait by Frank Scherschel of the crew of "Pappy's Pram," a B-26 Marauder bomber from the 322nd BG, which flew missions over Europe during WWII.
The Martin B-26 was rushed into production, and they were crashing up to 15 a month during early test flights. According to the commentary on this newsreel compilation on YouTube, the B-26 was known as "'The Flying Prostitute,' (because it had no visible means of support, referring to the small wings). " Those crazy kids.
Flak Bait was a B-26 Marauder aircraft that holds the record within the United States Army Air Forces for number of bombing missions survived during World War II. A B-26B manufactured in Baltimore, Maryland, by Martin, this aircraft was completed in April, 1943. It was christened Flak Bait by one of the pilots, James J. Farrell, who adapted the nickname of a family dog, "Flea Bait". Flak Bait was assigned to the 449th Bombardment Squadron, 322d Bombardment Group stationed in England
During the course of its 202 (some sources say 207 bombing missions over Germany as well as the Netherlands, Belgium, and France, Flak Bait lived up to its name by being shot with over 1000 holes, returned twice on one engine and once with an engine on fire, lost its electrical system once and its hydraulic system twice, and participated in bombing missions in support of D-Day and the Battle of the Bulge.
Flak Bait returned to the United States in December 1946. The front portion of the fuselage is currently on display at the Smithsonian Institution's National Air and Space Museum.
Lt. Col. Robert M. Stillman 17 March 1943 to 17 May 1943 (WIA - POW)
Lt. Col. Glenn C. Nye 19 May 1943 to April 20 1943
First Mission: 14 May 1943
Last Mission: 8 October 1943
Aircraft MIA: 12
B-26 Marauder over Germany - History
never spoke much about the war.
we were not permitted to "play army"
was a book called "Bridge Busters"
you will find this photograph.
about who was in that aircraft,
i believe that it says everything
i have since learned that
exploding between the right engine and the fuselage
aboard the b-26 martin marauder
the photograph was taken by
Utah Beach Landing Museum / La Madeleine / France
The B-25 Mitchell was a twin-engined medium bomber manufactured by North American Aviation. It was used by many Allied air forces, in every theatre of WWII, as well as many other air forces after the war ended, and saw service across four decades.
The B-25 was named in honour of General Billy Mitchell, a pioneer of US military aviation. By the end of its production, nearly 10,000 had been built. These included a few limited variations, such as the US Navy's and Marine Corps' PBJ-1 patrol bomber and the USAAF's F-10 photo reconnaissance aircraft.
The B-25 was a descendant of the earlier XB-21 (North American-39) project of the mid-1930s. Experience gained in developing that aircraft was eventually used by North American in designing the B-25 (called the NA-40 by the company). One NA-40 was built, with several modifications later being done to test a number of potential improvements. These improvements included Wright R-2600 radial engines, which would become standard on the later B-25.
In 1939, the modified and improved NA-40B was submitted to the US Army Air Corps for evaluation. This aircraft was originally intended to be an attack bomber for export to the UK and France, both of which had a pressing requirement for such aircraft in the early stages of WWII. However, those countries changed their minds, opting instead for the also-new Douglas DB-7 (later to be used by the US as the A-20 Havoc). Despite this loss of sales, the NA-40B re-entered the spotlight when the US Army Air Corps evaluated it for use as a medium bomber. Unfortunately, the NA-40B was destroyed in a crash on 11 April 1939. Nonetheless, the type was ordered into production, along with the army's other new medium bomber, the Martin B-26 Marauder.
During WWII, the Mitchell served in fairly large numbers with the Air Force of the Dutch government-in-exile. They participated in combat both in the East Indies as well as on the European front. On 30 June 1941, the Netherlands Purchasing Commission, acting on behalf of the Dutch government-in-exile in London, signed a contract for 162 B-25C aircraft. The bombers were to be delivered to the Netherlands East Indies to help deter any Japanese aggression into the region.
In February 1942, the British Overseas Airways Corporation (BOAC) agreed to ferry 20 of the Dutch B-25s from Florida to Australia via Africa and India, and an additional 10 via the South Pacific route from California. During March, five of the bombers on the Dutch order had reached Bangalore, India and 12 had reached Archerfield in Australia. It was agreed that the B-25s in Australia would be used as the nucleus of a new squadron, designated No. 18. This squadron would be staffed jointly by Australian and Dutch aircrews plus a smattering of aircrews from other nations, but would operate at least initially under RAAF command.
The B-25s of No. 18 Squadron would be painted with the Dutch national insignia (at this time a rectangular Netherlands flag) and would carry NEIAF serials. Discounting the 10 "temporary" B-25s delivered to 18 Squadron in early 1942, a total of 150 Mitchells were taken on strength by the NEIAF, 19 in 1942, 16 in 1943, 87 in 1944, and 28 in 1945. They flew bombing raids against Japanese targets in the East Indies. In 1944, the more capable B-25J Mitchell replaced most of the earlier C and D models.
In June 1940, No. 320 Squadron RAF had been formed from personnel formerly serving with the Royal Dutch Naval Air Service who had escaped to England after the German occupation of the Netherlands. Equipped with various British aircraft, No. 320 Squadron flew anti-submarine patrols, convoy escort missions, and performed air-sea rescue duties. They acquired the Mitchell II in September 1943, performing operations over Europe against gun emplacements, railway yards, bridges, troops and other tactical targets. They moved to Belgium in October 1944, and transitioned to the Mitchell III in 1945. No. 320 Squadron was disbanded in August 1945. Following the war, B-25s were used in a vain attempt of the Dutch to retain control of Indonesia.
This aircraft is PH-XXV, N5-149, 232411, with nose art calling it "Sarinah". It is part of the Duke of Brabant Air Force (otherwise known as the Royal Netherlands Air Force Historical Flight Foundation) and is based at Gilze-Rijen Air Base in the Netherlands. It is seen above taxiing to the end of the runway in preparation for take-off and its flying display at RAF Duxford during the 2013 Duxford Air Show.