Royal Navy in Mount Bay, Cornwall, c.1914
This picture shows part of the Royal Navy in Mount Bay (Cornwall), with St. Michael's Mount just seen in the background, at some point before the outbreak of the First World War. The ship nearest to shore appears to be a light cruiser, with some larger ships further out in the bay.
WORLD WAR 1 1914-1918
British Naval Vessels Lost, Damaged, Attacked, an update of "British Vessels Lost at Sea", HMSO, 1919. Includes all vessels identified in the individual accounts plus those in "Royal Navy Day by Day", 2005 edition
ROYAL NAVY LOG BOOKS OF THE WORLD WAR 1-ERA , 350,000 pages transcribed, all 318 ships now online, including Battle of the Falklands, Gallipoli, Mesopotamia, East Africa, China Station.
Follow this link for brief details of all 318 ships.
And follow this link to the archives of transcribed log book pages - go to Vessels, type in name, click on ship, "View all Logs").
BRITISH VESSELS LOST AT SEA including Naval, Merchant Ships and Fishing Vessels, from the original "British Vessels Lost at Sea, 1914-18", published by HMSO, 1919
An enlarged and corrected version of the original is in preparation with support from Dr Graham Watson, for which my thanks:
ROYAL NAVY WARSHIPS and AUXILIARIES
BRITISH MERCHANT SHIPS and FISHING VESSELS
by Date, August 1914 to December 1917 , lost, damaged, attacked, including name index for Merchant Ships sunk.
Pendant Numbers - short history by Lt-Cdr G Mason
British Shipbuilding & Repair Industries, including Royal Naval Dockyards and Research Establishments
At the outbreak of war the Royal Navy and the Royal Australian Navy, with assistance from New Zealand and Japanese naval and land forces in the Far East, had captured the German colonies of Kaiser-Wilhelmsland, Yap, Nauru and Samoa, instead of searching for the German East Asia Squadron commanded by Vice-Admiral Maximilian von Spee, which had abandoned its base at the German concession at Tsingtao in the expectation of war breaking out with Japan. The East Asia Squadron rendezvoused at Pagan Island in the Marianas in early August 1914. Eventually, recognising the German squadron's potential for disrupting trade in the Pacific, the British Admiralty decided to destroy it and searched the western Pacific Ocean after the East Asia Squadron had conducted the Bombardment of Papeete (22 September 1914), where a French steamer reported its presence. 
On 4 October 1914, the British learned from an intercepted radio message that Spee planned to attack shipping on the trade routes along the west coast of South America. Having correctly guessed the intention of the German commander, Rear-Admiral Sir Christopher Cradock patrolled the area with a squadron consisting of the armoured cruisers HMS Good Hope (flagship) and HMS Monmouth, the modern light cruiser HMS Glasgow, and the armed merchantman HMS Otranto. The Admiralty had planned to reinforce the squadron by sending the newer and more powerful armoured cruiser HMS Defence from the Mediterranean, but temporarily diverted this ship to patrol the western Atlantic. Defence reached Montevideo two days after the battle, and Cradock instead received the pre-dreadnought battleship HMS Canopus. 
The change of plan meant that the British squadron comprised obsolete or lightly armed vessels, crewed by inexperienced naval reservists.  Monmouth and Good Hope had a large number of 6-inch guns but only Good Hope was armed with two 9.2-inch guns mounted in single turrets. Spee had a superior force of five modern vessels (the armoured cruisers SMS Scharnhorst and Gneisenau and the light cruisers SMS Dresden, Leipzig and Nürnberg), led by officers hand-picked by Grand Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz. Scharnhorst and Gneisenau carried eight 8.2-inch guns each, which gave them an overwhelming advantage in range and firepower the crews of both ships had earned accolades for their gunnery before the war.   The Admiralty ordered Cradock to "be prepared to meet them in company", with no effort being made to clarify what action he was expected to take should he find Spee. On receiving his orders, Cradock asked the Admiralty for permission to split his fleet into two forces, each able to face Spee independently. The two groups would operate on the east and west coasts of South America to counter the possibility of Spee slipping past Cradock into the Atlantic Ocean. The Admiralty agreed and established the east coast squadron under Rear-Admiral Archibald Stoddart, consisting of three cruisers and two armed merchantmen. 
The remaining vessels formed the west coast squadron, which was reinforced by Canopus on 18 October. Reprieved from scrapping by the outbreak of war and badly in need of overhaul, Canopus was claimed to have a top speed of only 12 knots (22 km/h 14 mph), about two-thirds her design speed and just over half that of the remainder of the squadron. (After the fleet sailed, it was found that the ship could make 16 kn (30 km/h 18 mph) and that the senior engineer was mentally ill.) The Admiralty agreed that with Canopus the fleet would be too slow to force an engagement with the German cruisers and that without Canopus the west coast squadron stood no chance. Cradock sailed from the Falklands on 20 October, still under the impression that Defence would soon arrive and with Admiralty orders to attack German merchant ships and to seek out the East Asiatic Squadron. As the British squadron rounded Cape Horn, wireless transmissions from Leipzig increased in power and it seemed that the British would catch the ship while isolated, but Spee had made rendezvous with Leipzig on 14 October and had enforced wireless silence on the other ships. 
Lines of communication Edit
On 30 October, before the battle but due to communications delays too late to have any effect, Admiral Jackie Fisher was re-appointed First Sea Lord, replacing Prince Louis of Battenberg, who, along with Churchill, had been preoccupied with fighting to keep his position as First Sea Lord in the face of widespread concern over the senior British Admiral being of German descent. Battenberg was a proven and reliable admiral but was replaced to appease public opinion. The crisis drew the attention of the most senior members of the Admiralty away from the events in South America: Churchill later claimed that if he had not been distracted, he would have questioned the intentions of his admiral at sea more deeply. 
A signal from Cradock was received by Churchill on 27 October, advising the Admiralty of his intention to leave Canopus behind because of her slow speed and, as previously instructed, to take his remaining ships in search of Spee. He re-stated that he was still expecting reinforcements in the form of Defence, which he had previously been told was coming and that he had given orders for her to follow him as soon as possible. Although Defence had once been sent to reinforce Cradock, it had then been recalled part way, returned to the Mediterranean and then been sent again to form part of a new squadron patrolling the eastern coast of South America. A misunderstanding had arisen between Cradock and the Admiralty over how ships were to be assigned and used. Cradock believed he was expected to advance against Spee with those forces he had, whereas the Admiralty expected him to exercise caution, using Canopus for defence and merely to scout for the enemy or take advantage of any situation where he might come across part of the enemy force. Churchill replied to the signal, telling Cradock that Defence was to remain on the east coast and that Cradock was considered to have sufficient forces for his task, making no comment about his plan to abandon Canopus. Churchill had passed on the message to the Admiralty staff, saying he did not properly understand what Cradock intended. 
Cradock probably received Churchill's reply on 1 November with the messages collected by Glasgow at Coronel, giving him time to read it before the battle. Thus, Cradock would have taken the message as final confirmation that he was doing what was expected. Departing from Stanley he had left behind a letter to be forwarded to Admiral of the Fleet Sir Hedworth Meux in the event of his death. In this, he commented that he did not intend to suffer the fate of Rear Admiral Ernest Troubridge, a friend of Cradock, who at the time was awaiting court-martial for failing to engage the enemy.  The governor of the Falklands reported that Cradock had not expected to survive, as did the governor's aide.  Luce reported that "Cradock was constitutionally incapable of refusing or even postponing action if there was the smallest chance of success". 
On 3 November, Fisher in London received news from Valparaiso that Spee had been sighted. He urgently gave orders for Defence to join Cradock and stressed the need to keep Canopus together with the other ships. On 4 November, German reports of the battle started to reach London.
UK storms: Ancient forest revealed in Mount's Bay sand
Remains in Penzance, Cornwall, can be seen after sand was ripped from beaches by a series of storms which hit the coast in the new year.
Geologists believe extensive forests extended across Mount's Bay in Penzance between 4,000 and 6,000 years ago.
The shifting sands have also revealed wrecks, an iron age settlement in Devon and wartime explosives in Devon, Somerset and Dorset.
Remains of ancient forests have also been seen on Portreath beach, Daymer Bay in Cornwall and Bigbury Bay in Devon.
Frank Howie, Cornwall Wildlife Trustee and chair of the county's Geoconservation Group, said submerged forests were evidence of changes in Mount's Bay as the sea level had risen.
He said: "The storms have revealed trunks of pine and oak as well as the remains of hazel thickets with well-preserved cob nuts and acorns washed out by streams running across the beach.
"At Chyandor to the east of Penzance rooted stumps are exposed in situ in peaty soils and massive trunks have been washed out onto the rocky foreshore.
"These forests were growing four or five thousand years ago when the climate was slightly warmer than today."
St Michaels Mount in the bay is known in Cornish as Karrek Loos yn Koos - which means Grey Rock in the Wood.
Tidal movements are expected to cover the exposed forests with sand over the next few months.
Recent storms have also revealed a number of wartime explosives and the remains of the SS Belem which sank at Northcott Mouth, near Bude in 1917.
The Royal Navy removed an unexploded World War Two device from Crow Point Beach in north Devon.
Wartime explosives were also found on beaches in Braunton, Devon, Minehead in Somerset and in Dorset last weekend.
Remains of an Iron Age settlement have also been revealed in cliffs worn away by the huge waves at Challaborough in south Devon.
Cambrian class (1914-15 program)
This sub-class was slightly larger and improved compared to the preceding Calliope group of the C class cruisers. These light cruisers ordered under the 1914-15 Programme were repeats of the Calliope, with the same layout but only the Cambrian (last to be completed) incorporated the improved layout of the earlier class with one 6in gun in place of the two tandem 4in on the forecastle.
HMS Cambrian was built at Pembroke Dyd, laid down on 8.12.1914, launched 3.3.1916 and completed in May. HMS Canterbury was from John Brown, laid down on 14.10.1914, launchd 21.12.1915 and also completed in May 1916. Bioth Castor and Constance were from Cammell Laird, laid down on 28.10.1914 and 25.1.1915, launched in July and Setpember 1915 and completed in November 1915 and January 1916 respectively.
The other three were eventually brought up to the same standard in 1916-17. Other improvements consisted in a tripod with light director which replaced the pole foremast. In 1917-18 all four lost their 6-4in guns, for four 6in, the fourth placed abaft the funnels. The 13pdr AA was replaced by 2-3in AA on the forecastle.
Cambrian received a single 4in AA aft on the centreline plus two 2pdr guns. HMS Canterbury received two pairs of 21-in twin TTs above the surface as underwater TTs did not worked at high speed. After WW1, HMS Castor received two 2pdr and the 4in was relaced by two 3in AA guns. Her deck TTs were removed. In 1920-24 all four cruisers lost the after control tower and searchlight platform.
HMS Cambrian joined 4th Light Cruiser Squadron from May 1916-1919, then North America and West Indies Station 1919-22. 2nd LCS, Fleet August 1922-June 1924 including operations during Turkish Crisis 1922-23. Paid off into dockyard control in June 1924 for refit to
1926, then commissioned for 2nd Atlantic LCS in August 1926-1929. She was a trooping ship to China in 1929 before paying off into
Nore Reserve November 1929. She was commissioned as SNO’s ship by March 1931 and paid off into dockyard control at Sheerness in July 1933, and put on sales list, sold for BU in 1934.
She served with the 3rd BCS in 1916, and participated in the Battle of Jutland. Afterwards she served with the 5th LCS at Harwich Force 1916-18, sinking the German torpedo-boat S 20 by gunfire off Belgian coast, 5 June 1917. She later served in the Aegean and Black Sea 1918-19, then commissioned at Portsmouth in November 1919 for 1st LCS, Atlantic Fleet. She was later attached to Gunnery School, Ports-
mouth 1920-22, then she joined the reserve in 1922-24. She was recommissioned at Portsmouth for the 2nd CS, Atlantic Fleet May 1924, paying off into dockyard control for refit from June 1925.
She was recommissioned from Nore Reserve in November 1926 and joined the 2nd CS, trooping to China in 1930-31, and followed by Nore
reserved again in 1931-December 1933. She was trooping again from August 1932. HMS Canterbury was paid off in December 1933 and sold for BU in July 1934 to the same company as Cambrian.
HMS Castor was commissioned in November 1915 as Flagship for Commodore (D), 11th Destroyer Flotilla, Grand Fleet. She participated and fought at Jutland, where she was damaged by gunfire (10 casualties). She later served in the Black Sea 1919-20 (Supporting Russian Whites), and then back home, she was recommissioned in April 1920 at Chatham for the 2nd LCS, Atlantic Fleet, and served on Irish Patrol 1922.
She was a schoolship at Portsmouth in 1923-24, and was placed in the Nore Reserve in 1924-25. From November 1925 to September 1926 she served in trooping duties to China from October 1927. She was recommissioned at station in June 1928, Devonport Reserve from July 1930, paid off in May 1935 and sold for BU in July 1936.
HMS Constance first served with 4th LCS, Grand Fleet, in January 1916-1919, and fought at Jutland. She later joined the 8th LCS, North America and West Indies Station 1919-26 and was recommissioned at Devonport in January 1923. She was refitted in Chatham September 1926-December 1927, then Flagship at the Portsmouth Reserve. She joined the 5th CS, China Station from 1928 until November 1930, paid off into reserve at Portsmouth, in reserve from 1931 until July 1935 and sold for BU in January 1936.
|Dimensions||135.90 m long, 12.6 m wide, 4.5 m draught. (446 x 41 x 14 ft)|
|Displacement||4320 tons standard -4799 tons Fully Loaded|
|Propulsion||4 shaft Parsons (Canterbury Brown Curtis) turbines, 6 Yarrow boilers, 40,000 hp.|
|Range||6000 nm @ 10 knots. 841 tons oil|
|Armament||2 x 6in/45 XIII (152 mm), 8 x 4in/45 (102 mm) QF Mark IV, 8 x 3pdr DP (47 mm), 1 x 13 pdr, 2 x 21-in TTs.|
|Protection||Belt 40-75 mm, decks 25 mm, Masks 25 mm (1 in), CT 152 mm (6 in)|
Royal Navy in Mount Bay, Cornwall, c.1914 - History
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Current Royal Navy shore establishments [ edit | edit source ]
Naval bases [ edit | edit source ]
Air stations [ edit | edit source ]
Training establishments [ edit | edit source ]
- (Fareham, Hampshire) (Britannia Royal Naval College, Dartmouth, Devon)
- Includes Hindostan as static training ship
- Includes Bristol as static training ship
- Includes Brecon as static training ship
- Institute of Naval Medicine (Alverstoke, Hampshire) INM (Northwood, Middlesex, England), formerly HMS Warrior. Operational HQ for Commander in Chief Fleet
- Sembawang dockyard in the former HMNB Singapore (HMS Sembawang) still has RN personnel based in a building in what is now a civilian dockyard. This RN presence was retained when British Forces withdrew from Singapore in 1971, and US Navy and Five Powers Defence Arrangements ships that use this dockyard (except for those of the Republic of Singapore Navy itself) are all fuelled by the UK Ministry of Defence Fuels Group. Ώ]
- With coastal patrol vessels excluded, the number of significant ships in the Royal Navy has declined by around 74% since the Falklands War.
- Even with coastal patrol vessels included, the number of significant ships in the Royal Navy is 24% less than in 1650.
- For the first time since the World War One, The Royal Navy is currently without any aircraft carriers (although the new Queen Elizabeth class carriers are due to come into operation in 2018).
Other [ edit | edit source ]
- , Rosyth Dockyard, Rosyth, Fife, Scotland Administrative aggregation of Royal Navy personnel based in the United StatesNATO headquarters Allied Forces Southern Europe, Naples
Defence Munitions Centres [ edit | edit source ]
Testing establishments [ edit | edit source ]
De facto shore establishments [ edit | edit source ]
The Royal Navy’s Size Throughout History
Throughout the Georgian, Victorian and Edwardian eras the Royal Navy boasted the largest and most powerful fleet in the world. From protecting the Empire’s trade routes to projecting Britain’s interests abroad, the ‘Senior Service’ has played a pivotal role in the nation’s history.
But how does the current strength of the Royal Navy compare with the days of Empire?
Pulling data from a number of different sources and using some nifty data visualisation tools, we’ve been able to paint a picture of how the strength of the Royal Navy has ebbed and flowed as far back as 1650.
Above: The Royal Navy engaged at The Battle of Cape St Vincent, 16 January 1780
So without further ado, let’s take a look at the overall number of ships in the Royal Navy since 1650. Please note that this first graph includes smaller coastal patrol vessels as well as larger vessels such as battleships and frigates:
As you would expect, the size of the fleet peaked during the First and Second World Wars as Britain’s war machine quickly ramped up production of ships. Unfortunately the sheer number of ships during 1914-18 and 1939-45 completely skews our graph, so for the sake of clarity we’ve decided to strip out the two World Wars and – whilst we’re at it – take out coastal patrol vessels from the mix.
So what does this graph tell us? Here are a few interesting insights we’ve managed to extract:
Finally, we thought it would be interesting to take a look at military spend as a percentage of GDP (gross domestic product, or the total ‘money’ a nation generates each year), and to overlay this with the size of the Royal Navy through the years.
Again, here we can see a massive spike in military spend during the First and Second World Wars. In fact, by the early 1940’s over 50% of Britain’s GDP was being spent on the war effort!
Current military spend as a percentage of GDP sits at 2.3% which – although low by historic standards – is not the lowest ever. That honour goes to 1700 where, during the reign of William and Mary, military spend could be temporarily lowered thanks to the incorporation of William III’s Dutch naval vessels into the British navy.
Huge G7 'Mount Rushmore' sculpture made of scrap metal and electronics on Cornwall beach
A huge sculpture made of electronic waste is being built on a beach in Cornwall.
From afar, the piece of art looks like the famous Mount Rushmore National Memorial in South Dakota, USA, which depicts the faces of four iconic presidents. But at closer inspection, the political leaders are completely different and so is the material it&aposs made from.
The American memorial was built in granite and depicts presidents George Washington, Thomas Jefferson, Theodore Roosevelt and Abraham Lincoln.
But the sculpture being made at Hayle Towans, called Mount Recyclemore, portrays completely different people. The seven faces definitely look like the world leaders who will be attending the G7 Summit later this week.
They are UK Prime Minister Boris Johnson, Japanese Prime Minister Yoshihide Suga, France&aposs president Emmanuel Macron, Italian Prime Minister Mario Draghi, Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau, German Chancellor Angela Merkel and US President Joe Biden.
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The huge faces have been built on the dunes facing out to Carbis Bay where the G7 leaders will be meeting.
The artist behind the project is Joe Rush. He is using old electrical items and scrap metal to bring his sculpture to life.
The project commissioned by musicMagpie aims to highlight the growing threat of e-waste on the planet as the G7 leaders prepare to discuss how to tackle climate change and build a greener future.
Work is currently underway, but pictures taken by CornwallLive photographer Greg Martin show what it currently looks like.
The G7 Summit will start on Friday (June 11) and will end on Sunday (June 13), the same day Joe Biden is expected to be at Buckingham Palace to meet the Queen.
World leaders will meet in Carbis Bay and St Ives, with Falmouth and Newquay airport also providing support venues for the event.
Hide Out Now
Jill Biden admonished her husband Joe to pay attention when she addressed American troops in the United Kingdom Wednesday night.
'Joe pay attention,' the first lady told the president. She was giving remarks as the president interacted with the crowd of Air Force personnel at Royal Air Force Mildenhall.
She had just told the service members to sit down. President Biden, standing behind her, turned around to see the troops positioned behind the stage.
That was when the first lady asked chided him to watch her as she addressed Air Force personnel at Royal Air Force Mildenhall.
In her brief remarks, the first lady thanked the troops for their service and touted her Joining Forces initiative - a group she formed with then-first lady Michelle Obama to support families of American troops.
'I hope that you know how special you are. And we are so grateful for your and your family's service,' she said.
Biden and his wife Jill, a university professor, touched down at RAF Mildenhall, Suffolk in Air Force One just after 7.30pm, kicking off the president's eight-day trip to Europe.
The UK stop will include this week's G7 summit as well as face-to-face meetings with the Queen and British Prime Minister Boris Johnson.
Biden's packed scheduled also includes meetings with NATO leaders and EU leaders in Brussels. His trip will be capped off with a sit down with Russian President Vladimir Putin in Geneva next week.
For his first event, Biden will meet US military personnel stationed at the base before heading to Carbis Bay near St Ives, where the leaders of Britain, Germany, France, Italy, Japan and Canada will gather for three days to discuss the pandemic and climate change among other issues.
Biden is scheduled to meet with Johnson for face-to-face talks Thursday - the first time the two men will have met in person - before the G7 Summit formally gets underway on Friday.
When the summit ends on Sunday, the President and First Lady will meet the Queen at Windsor Castle.
Biden will then depart for Brussels where he will attend a NATO summit and a joint US-EU summit before then heading to Geneva for a bilateral showdown with Russian President Vladimir Putin.
In an op-ed for the Washington Post, Biden said that the trip is about 'realising America's renewed commitment to our allies and partners' as he attempts to build bridges with Britain and the EU after some leaders including German Chancellor Angela Merkel clashed with his predecessor Donald Trump.
The Republican president engaged in a bitter trade row with the EU and slammed NATO members for failing to spend more on defense - sparking fears that he would pull the US out of the military alliance and embolden Russian activity in Ukraine and eastern Europe.
Trump also formally withdrew the US from the Iran nuclear deal and the Paris Agreement - both negotiated by Barack Obama. One of Biden's first acts as President was to rejoin the climate accord and reopen nuclear talks with the Iranian government, as he sought to reverse the actions of the previous administration.
The White House has said that Biden will meet with Johnson to 'affirm the special relationship between our nations' - a term which the prime minister reportedly dislikes because it is 'too needy'.
Whitehall is understood to have viewed the President's decision to make the UK his first overseas destination as a major diplomatic victory for Johnson.
Jill Biden admonished husband Joe to pay attention during her speech during her Air Force personnel at Royal Air Force Mildenhall
The Prime Minister has lavished praise on Biden since he won power in the election last year, in the hope of striking a new free trade deal with the US.
However, there are concerns that he and the President may not get along, after Democratic sources previously questioned whether Johnson was an 'ally'.
Johnson had sought close relations with Trump, causing Biden to call him a 'physical and emotional clone' of the controversial Republican president.
Johnson faced fierce domestic criticism over his relationship with Trump, but has defended the ties and has insisted that prime ministers should always have the 'best possible' ties with sitting US presidents.
There has also been speculation Johnson and Biden could struggle to work together because of the Prime Minister's past criticism of Barack Obama, in whose administration Biden served as vice president.
Biden is also expected to put pressure on the UK not to renege on the Northern Ireland Brexit Protocol in a bid to preserve the 1998 Good Friday Agreement. US concerns about the province's trade status could even derail efforts to strike an Anglo-US trade deal.
National Security Adviser Jake Sullivan told the BBC: 'President Biden believes and has said that the Northern Ireland Protocol, as part of the agreement between the UK and the European Union, is critical to ensuring that the spirit, promise and future of the Good Friday Agreement is protected.
'That being said, of course the UK and EU need to work out the specifics and the modalities on that, need to find some way to proceed that works both for the EU and the UK. But whatever way they find to proceed must, at its core, fundamentally protect the gains of the Good Friday Agreement and not imperil that.
'And that is the message that President Biden will send when he is in Cornwall.'
However, there were positive signs in March of the 'special relationship' warming up after Biden's climate envoy John Kerry visited London for talks with Johnson. The positive trend continued in May when US Secretary of State Antony Blinken said Washington has 'no closer partner' than the UK.
President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden disembark from Air Force One as they arrive at RAF Mildenhall ahead of the G7 Summit
Biden will address troops at RAF Maidenhall
President Biden is kicking off an eight-day trip to Europe, first lady Jill Biden will be with him for the UK portion
Air Force One carrying U.S. President Joe Biden lands at RAF (Royal Air Force) Mildenhall as he arrives ahead of the G7 Summit, near Mildenhall, Suffolk
Military personnel on a roof at RAF Mildenhall in Suffolk, before the arrival of US President Joe Biden and First Lady Jill Biden
Photographers take pictures behind a fence of RAF (Royal Air Force) Mildenhall ahead of the arrival of U.S. President Joe Biden, near Mildenhall, Suffolk
A man stands on top of his car as he waits for the arrival of U.S. President Joe Biden and first lady Jill Biden in Air Force One at RAF Mildenhall
Plane spotters take pictures of an airplane at RAF (Royal Air Force) Mildenhall ahead of the arrival of U.S. President Joe Biden
President Joe Biden and first lady Jill left the White House on Wednesday on the way to Cornwall where they will meet Boris Johnson and attend the G7, before a meeting with the Queen and his summit with Vladimir Putin
President Biden brushes a cicada from his neck as he and Jill board Air Force One at Andrews Air Force Base
Surfers enjoy the waves as a Royal Navy ship is seen, as security preparations are underway for the G7 summit, near St Ives
Preparations remain ongoing ahead of the G7 summit in Carbis Bay later this week. A Royal Navy vessel is pictured off the coast of Cornwall on June 8
The mini-village built near Cripplesease, near St Ives, to house and feed the security needed for the G7 Summit this weekend
Left: Security patrol a railway line ahead of the G7. Right: Police and military scuba-divers preparing for the summit
Venue for meeting with Boris: The Presidnet and Prime Minister will meet at St Michael's Mount, pictured on Tuesday as United States Marine Corps (USMC) Osprey helicopters from Biden's entourage practice their approach
Prime Minister Boris Johnson pictured arriving at Newquay Airport ahead of the G7 summit, which begins on Friday
Boris Johnson and Grant Shapps view the LauncherOne at the Spaceport at Newquay Airport ahead of the G7 Summit
An RAF Giraffe agile multibeam radar system is set up near the beach in Cornwall ahead of the G7 Summit
A 400-strong contingent of Secret Service agents and support staff are due to arrive for the summit being hosted by Boris Johnson and held in the tiny Cornish resort of Carbis Bay. President Biden is believed to be staying in the Tregenna hotel
Police continue their checks in Carbis Bay, Cornwall as world leaders gather to discuss the pandemic and climate change
Armed British police land on Carbis Bay beach early on Tuesday morning as security teams practice ahead of the summit
Biden will join others from the G7 group of leading economies in Carbis Bay on Friday, where Devon and Cornwall Police are expecting climate protests.
Johnson plans to use the summit to urge the members - also including Canada, Japan, France, Germany and Italy - to 'defeat' Covid-19 by helping to vaccinate the world by the end of next year.
The White House said in April when it confirmed the trip to Europe that Biden will 'highlight his commitment to restoring our alliances, revitalizing the Transatlantic relationship, and working in close cooperation with our allies and multilateral partners to address global challenges and better secure America's interests'.
During an official visit to the UK, Blinken said that the 'special relationship' is 'enduring', 'effective' and 'dynamic' as well as being ' close to the hearts of the American people'.
Speaking at a press conference in Downing Street alongside Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab, Blinken said: 'It is also the 75th anniversary of Winston Churchill's famous speech at Westminster College in Missouri where he described the Special Relationship between the United Kingdom and the United States and how vital it is for our two countries and many others around the world.
'Three quarters of a century later, that Special Relationship is enduring, it is effective, it is dynamic and it is close to the hearts of the American people. The United States has no closer ally, no closer partner, than the United Kingdom and I am very glad for the chance to say that again here today.'
The President's security team for the Summit is reportedly so vast they will have to stay in more than 50 hired luxury camper vans because there is not enough accommodation.
The recreational vehicles have been delivered to St Mawgan airbase near Newquay, 20 miles from where the meeting of leaders takes place in the tiny Cornish resort of Carbis Bay at the weekend.
A 400-strong contingent of Secret Service agents and support staff will be at the summit, but with thousands of holidaymakers already in the area, almost every hotel and B&B in a 30-mile radius of the summit has been booked.
Meanwhile, video footage showed two Sea King and three V-22 Osprey helicopters soaring above Cornwall and Devon as they practiced the route the President will take from the airbase to Tregenna Castle Resort, St Ives, after Air Force One lands at RAF Mildenhall and then Newquay airport on Wednesday.
Some 1,000 police will be staying on a cruise liner docked in Falmouth harbour and others will stay in RVs currently parked up at the RAF airbase near Newquay.
It comes after a long line of caravans clogged up the A30 on Monday as holidaymakers made their way to the southern-most point of England. One photograph shared on social media showed heavy traffic that had been 'crawling' for around 20 minutes near the Devon-Cornwall border.