Edward Winslow was born in Droitwich, England in 1595. He joined the Separatists, a Puritan religious group who were highly critical of the Church of England. They were followers of Robert Browne, a preacher who thought the Church of England should abolish bishops, ecclesiastical courts and other relics of Roman Catholicism such as kneeling and the use of priestly vestment and altars. The Separatists also believed that the government was too tolerant towards those who were guilty of adultery, drunkenness and breaching the Sabbath.
The Separatists, who held their church services in secret, were persecuted and several members were imprisoned for their activities. The Dutch government had a reputation for tolerance towards dissenters and in 1608 Bradford and a group of Separatists decided to emigrate to Holland. Winslow and his friends soon became disillusioned with life in their new home in Leyden. They could only find low-paid work and they feared that their children were losing their English identity.
In 1620 Winslow, William Bradford, John Carver, William Brewster, and other Separatists based in Holland decided to emigrate to America. One hundred and two people boarded the Mayflower and after crossing the Atlantic they decided to settle at a place they called Plymouth in Massachusetts Bay.
The Separatists established their own government and John Carver was elected governor of the colony. The plan was for the pilgrims to live on fish caught from the sea. However, they were not very successful at this, and by the spring of 1621 half of them had died of starvation or disease.
When John Carver died in 1621 William Bradford became the new governor of the colony and appointed Winslow as his assistant. Winslow who served as a member of the governor's council (1624-46) was elected as governor in 1633, 1636 and 1644. He wrote several books about his experiences and religious beliefs including Good News from New England (1624), Hypocrisy Unmasked (1646) and New England's Salamander (1647). Edward Winslow died at sea while returning from the West Indies in 1655.
They (the Plymouth settlers) had no friends to welcome them, no inns to entertain or refresh their weather-beaten bodies, no houses or much less towns to repair to. The season was winter, and they that know the winters of this country know them to be sharp and violent, and subject to cruel and fierce storms, dangerous to travel to known places, much more to search an unknown coast. Besides, what could they see but a hideous and desolate wilderness, full of wild beasts and wild men.
At times there were but six or seven strong enough to hunt, cook and care for the entire company. These men and women at great risk to their own health spared no pains, night or day.
We have found the Indians very loving. We can walk as peaceably and safely in the woods as in the highways of England. We entertain them in our houses, and they give us venison.
The son of a salt dealer, Edward Winslow received a classical education and later became a printer's apprentice in London. Probably employed by William Brewster, he moved to Leiden, Holland, in 1617. Once associated with the Pilgrims there, he became an important supporter and invaluable servant.
Winslow sailed to America with the Pilgrims on the Mayflower and from the first bore the Pilgrims' diplomatic responsibilities. He attended to Indian relations and was the colony's major trade representative. He went to the Maine coast to buy provisions from fishing ships and was active in the creation and defense of furtrading posts. He also served three terms as Plymouth's governor.
However, it was as Plymouth's agent in England that Winslow performed his greatest service. He went to England in 1623 to sell a supply of boards and furs and to report to the colony's investors. He returned to Plymouth the next year with a patent for a fishing center at Cape Ann and with three heifers and a bull, the beginnings of Plymouth's herd. In 1630 he replaced the questionable Isaac Allerton as Plymouth's agent to the London investors and in 1634 defended Plymouth's jurisdiction over its Maine trading fort. During the latter visit Winslow proposed that New England create a united military front against the encroachments of the Dutch and French. The proposal aroused political opposition, and he was imprisoned for 4 months for being a Separatist in religion. He undertook his last journey to England in 1646 as the agent of both Massachusetts and Plymouth to defend them from the attacks of their English enemies, notably Robert Childe and Samuell Gorton.
Winslow did not return to Plymouth but instead joined Oliver Cromwell's government in England. He was appointed one of the three joint commanders of the expedition that captured Jamaica in 1655, and he died on the return voyage. His departure from Plymouth and his death were sad losses for the colony.
Winslow wrote a number of pamphlets and tracts recording Plymouth's early history. Mourt's Relation, of which he was coauthor, and his Good Newes from New England were Plymouth's first authoritative histories.
Letter of Edward Winslow, 11 December 1621
Loving, and old Friend although I received no letter from you by this ship, yet forasmuch as I know you expect the performance of my promise, which was, to write unto you truly and faithfully of all things. I have therefore at this time sent unto you accordingly. Referring you for further satisfaction to our more large relations. You shall understand, that in this little time, that a few of us have been here, we have built seven dwelling-houses XE " dwelling-houses" , and four for the use of the plantation, and have made preparation for divers others. We set the last spring some twenty acres XE " acre" of Indian XE " Indian" corn XE " corn" , and sowed some six acres of barley XE " barley" and peas XE " peas" , and according to the manner of the Indians, we manured our ground with herrings XE " herring" or rather shads XE " shad" , which we have in great abundance, and take with great ease at our doors XE " door" . Our corn did prove well, and God be praised, we had a good increase of Indian corn, and our barley indifferent good, but our peas not worth the gathering, for we feared they were too late sown, they came up very well, and blossomed, but the sun XE " sun" parched them in the blossom our harvest being gotten in, our governor sent four men on fowling XE " fowling" , that so we might after a more special manner rejoice together, after we had gathered the fruit XE " fruit" of our labors they four in one day killed XE " kill" as much fowl XE " fowl" , as with a little help beside, served the company almost a week, at which time amongst other recreations, we exercised XE " exercise" our arms, many of the Indians coming amongst us, and among the rest their greatest King Massasoit XE " Massasoit" , with some ninety men, whom for three days we entertained and feasted XE " feasted" , and they went out and killed five deer XE " deer" , which they brought to the plantation and bestowed on our governor, and upon the captain, and others. And although it be not always so plentiful, as it was at this time with us, yet by the goodness of God, we are so far from want, that we often wish you partakers of our plenty. We have found the Indians very faithful in their covenant XE " covenant" of peace with us very loving and ready to pleasure us: we often go to them, and they come to us some of us have been fifty miles by land in the country with them the occasions and relations whereof you shall understand by our general and more full declaration of such things as are worth the noting, yea, it hath pleased God so to possess the Indians with a fear of us, and love unto us, that not only the greatest king amongst them called Massasoit, but also all the princes and peoples round about us, have either made suit unto us, or been glad of any occasion to make peace with us, so that seven of them at once have sent their messengers XE " messenger" to us to that end, yea, an Fle at sea, which we never saw hath also together with the former yielded willingly to be under the protection, and subjects to our sovereign Lord King James XE "King James" , so that there is now great peace amongst the Indians themselves, which was not formerly, neither would have been but for us and we for our parts walk as peaceably and safely in the wood, as in the highways XE " highway" in England, we entertain them familiarly in our houses XE " house" , and they as friendly bestowing their venison XE " venison" on us. They are a people without any religion XE " religion" , or knowledge of any God, yet very trusty, quick of apprehension, ripe-witted, just, the men and women XE " women" go naked XE " naked" , only a skin XE " skin" about their middles for the temper of the air XE " air" , here it agreeth well with that in England, and if there be any difference at all, this is somewhat hotter in summer, some think it to be colder in winter XE " winter" , but I cannot out of experience so say the air is very clear and not foggy XE " foggy" , as hath been reported. I never in my life remember a more seasonable year, than we have here enjoyed: and if we have once but kine XE " kine" , horses XE " horse" , and sheep XE " sheep" , I make no question, but men might live as contented here as in any part of the world. For fish XE " fish" and fowl, we have great abundance, fresh cod in the summer is but coarse meat XE " meat" with us, our bay is full of lobsters XE " lobster" all the summer, and affordeth variety of other fish in September we can take a hogshead XE " hogshead" of eels XE " eel" in a night XE " night" , with small labor, and can dig XE " dig" them out of their beds XE " bed" , all the winter we have mussels XE " mussels" and othus at our doors: oysters XE " oyster" we have none near, but we can have them brought by the Indians when we will all the springtime the earth XE " earth" sendeth forth naturally very good sallet XE " salad" herbs XE " herbs" : here are grapes XE " grape" , white and red XE " red" , and very sweet and strong also. Strawberries, gooseberries XE " gooseberries" , raspas XE " raspberries" , etc. Plums XE " plum" of three sorts, with black and red, being almost as good as a damson XE " damson" : abundance of roses, white, red, and damask XE " damask" : single, but very sweet indeed the country wanteth only industrious men to employ, for it would grieve your hearts XE " heart" (if as I) you had seen so many miles together by goodly rivers XE " river" uninhabited, and withal to consider those parts of the world wherein you live, to be even greatly burdened with abundance of people. These things I thought good to let you understand, being the truth of things as near as I could experimentally take knowledge of, and that you might on our behalf give God thanks who hath dealt so favorably with us.
Our supply of men from you came the ninth of November 1621, putting in at Cape Cod XE " Cape Cod " XE " cod" , some eight or ten leagues from us, the Indians XE " Indian" that dwell thereabout were they who were owners of the corn XE " corn" which we found in caves XE " cave" , for which we have given them full content, and are in great league with them, they sent us word there was a ship near unto them, but thought it to be a Frenchman, and indeed for ourselves, we expected not a friend so soon. But when we perceived that she made for our bay, the governor commanded a great piece to be shot off, to call home such as were abroad at work whereupon every man, yea, boy XE " boy" that could handle a gun XE " gun" were ready, with full resolution, that if she were an enemy, we would stand in our just defense, not fearing them, but God provided better for us than we supposed these came all in health XE " health" unto us, not any being sick by the way (otherwise than seasickness XE " seasickness" ) and so continue at this time, by the blessing of God, the goodwife XE " goodwife" Ford was delivered of a son XE " son" the first night XE " night" she landed, and both of them are very well. When it pleaseth God, we are settled and fitted for the fishing XE " fishing" business, and other trading, I doubt not but by the blessing of God, the gain will give content to all in the mean time, that we have gotten we have sent by this ship, and though it be not much, yet it will witness for us, that we have not been idle, considering the smallness of our number all this summer. We hope the merchants will accept of it, and be encouraged to furnish us with things needful for further employment, which will also encourage us to put forth ourselves to the uttermost. Now because I expect your coming unto us with other of our friends, whose company we much desire, I thought good to advertise you of a few things needful be careful to have a very good bread XE " bread" -room XE " bread-room" to put your biscuits XE " biscuit" in, let your cask XE " cask" for beer XE " beer" and water be iron XE " iron" -bound XE " iron-bound" for the first tire if not more let not your meat XE " meat" be dry-salted XE " dry-salted" , none can better do it than the sailors XE " sailors" let your meal XE " meal" be so hard trod in your cask that you shall need an adz XE " adz" or hatchet XE " hatchet" to work it out with: trust not too much on us for corn at this time, for by reason of this last company that came, depending wholly upon us, we shall have little enough till harvest be careful to come by some of your meal to spend by the way, it will much refresh you, build your cabins XE " cabin" as open as you can, and bring good store of clothes XE " clothes" , and bedding XE " bedding" with you bring every man a musket XE " musket" or fowling XE " fowling" -piece XE " fowling-piece" , let your piece be long in the barrel XE " barrel" , and fear not the weight of it, for most of our shooting is from stands bring juice of lemons XE " lemons" , and take it fasting, it is of good use for hot waters, aniseed XE " aniseed" water is the best, but use it sparingly: if you bring anything for comfort in the country, butter XE " butter" or sallet XE " salad" oil XE " oil" , or both is very good our Indian corn even the coarsest, maketh as pleasant meat as rice XE " rice" , therefore spare that unless to spend by the way bring paper XE " paper" , and linseed XE " linseed" oil for your windows XE " window" , with cotton yarn XE " yarn" for your lamps XE " lamp" let your shot be most for big fowls XE " fowl" , and bring store of powder and shot: I forbear further to write for the present, hoping to see you by the next return, so I take my leave, commending you to the Lord for a safe conduct unto us. Resting in Him
Plymouth XE " Plymouth" in New England
this 11 of December.
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Edward Winslow, (born Oct. 18, 1595, Droitwich, Worcestershire, Eng.—died May 8, 1655, at sea, near Jamaica, British West Indies), English founder of the Plymouth colony in Massachusetts.
In 1617 Winslow moved to Holland, where he united with John Robinson’s church at Leiden, and in 1620 he was one of the Mayflower pilgrims who emigrated to New England. His first wife, Elizabeth (Barker) Winslow, died soon after their arrival at Plymouth. In May 1621 he married Mrs. Susanna White, the mother of Peregrine White (1620–1704), who was the first child born among the New England colonists. Winslow’s marriage to Susanna White was the first in New England.
Winslow was delegated by his associates to deal with the Indians in the vicinity (the Wampanoag) and succeeded in winning the friendship of their chief, Massasoit. He served as a member of the governor’s council from 1624 to 1647, except in 1633–34, 1636–37, and 1644–45, when he was governor of the colony. In 1643 he was one of the commissioners of the United Colonies of New England and on several occasions was sent to England to represent the interests of the Massachusetts Bay and Plymouth colonies.
In October 1646 he left on his last mission as the agent of Massachusetts Bay and did not return for the remaining nine years of his life.
His writings, though fragmentary, are of great value to historians of the Plymouth colony. His Glorious Progress of the Gospel Amongst the Indians in New England (1649) led to the founding of the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in New England.
This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeff Wallenfeldt, Manager, Geography and History.
Friends [ edit | edit source ]
Early in the series, Eddie's best friend was Rodney Beckett (Randy Joselynn, one of the series few white regulars). Later on, Eddie became friends with Waldo Geraldo Faldo (Shawn Harrison) and Steve Urkel.
Eddie is also friends with Alex Park, whom he calls "Weasel", played by Shavar Ross. Weasel happens to be a hard-headed, troublemaking best friend, who likes mooning meter-maids (which Carl is very offended by because it disrespects law enforcement officers), and once won an award for most days in detention.
Steve Urkel [ edit | edit source ]
Like the rest of his family, Eddie's relationship with next-door neighbor Steve Urkel — who is two years younger than him and the same age as Laura — evolved. During the early years, Eddie felt little more than pity for Urkel, and like Laura and Carl, thought of him as annoying Urkel, meanwhile, idolized Eddie and (perhaps thinking of him as a big brother) considered him his "best bud." However, Eddie was grateful for tutoring help the math-whiz Urkel gave him and he felt obligated to protect him from a bully that threatened him with serious harm.
Carl, Eddie and Laura are wondering if they have ever talked to Steve's parents Dr. Herb Urkel and Diane Urkel about how their son Steve Urkel is always been mischievous to him, his father Carl and his sister Laura.
As the years progressed, Eddie warmed up to Urkel and eventually accepted him as a loyal and true friend. Frequently the two, along with other friends such as Waldo Faldo, would engage in various capers and would up sticking up for each other. Eddie and Urkel would also help each other resolve various personal crises. They are now brothers in law since Steve married Laura.
THE “FIRST THANKSGIVING” WE’VE FORGOTTEN
Tomorrow families all across America will celebrate the Thanksgiving holiday, and some, at least, will link what they are doing to the Pilgrims’ celebration on the coast of Massachusetts in 1621. Although frequently embellished and sometimes caricatured, the story of the Pilgrims’ “First Thanksgiving” is rich with insight and inspiration. The Pilgrims were human, which means that they bore the imprint of the Fall with all its attendant sinful consequences: they were ethnocentric, sometimes judgmental and intolerant, prone to bickering, and tempted by mammon. They were also people of remarkable faith and fortitude—common folk of average abilities and below-average means who risked everything in the interest of their families and their community of faith.
“Pilgrims Going to Church,” George H. Boughton, 1867
The Pilgrims’ trial began with their voyage on the Mayflower, a 65-day-long ordeal in which 102 men, women, and children crossed the stormy Atlantic in a space the size of a city bus. Following that came a cruel New England winter for which they were ill prepared. (Massachusetts is more than six hundred miles south of London—on a line of latitude even with Madrid, Spain—and the Pilgrims were expecting a much more temperate climate.) Due more to exposure than starvation, their number dwindled rapidly, so that by the onset of spring some fifty-one members of the party had died. A staggering fourteen of the eighteen wives who had set sail on the Mayflower had perished in their new home. Widowers and orphans abounded.
That the Pilgrims could celebrate at all in this setting was a testimony both to human resilience and to heavenly hope. Yet celebrate they did, most probably sometime in late September or early October after God had granted them a harvest sufficient to see them through the next winter. This is an inspiring story, and it is a good thing for Christians this Thanksgiving to remember it. I don’t know about you, but I am always encouraged when I sit down with Christian friends and hear of how God has sustained them in hard times. Remembering the Pilgrims’ story is a lot like that, although the testimony comes to us not from across the room but from across the centuries.
And yet the part of the Pilgrims’ story that modern-day Americans have chosen to emphasize doesn’t seem to have been that significant to the Pilgrims themselves. More importantly, it fails to capture the heart of the Pilgrims’ thinking about God’s provision and our proper response. Most of what we know about the Pilgrims’ experience after leaving Holland comes from two Pilgrim writers—William Bradford, the long-time governor of the Plymouth colony, and Edward Winslow, his close assistant. Bradford never even referred to the Pilgrims’ 1621 celebration (what we call the “First Thanksgiving”) in his famous history of the Pilgrims’ colony, Of Plymouth Plantation. Winslow mentioned it but briefly, devoting five sentences to it in a letter that he wrote to supporters in England. Indeed, the 115 words in those five sentences represent the sum total of all that we know about the occasion!
This means that there is a lot that we would like to know about that event that we will never know. It seems likely (although it must be conjecture) that the Pilgrims thought of their autumn celebration that first fall in Plymouth as something akin to the harvest festivals common at that time in England. What is absolutely certain is that they did not conceive of the celebration as a Thanksgiving holiday.
“First Thanksgiving at Plymouth,” Jeannie Brownscombe, 1914.
When the Pilgrims spoke of holidays, they used the word literally. A holiday was a “holy day,” a day specially set apart for worship and communion with God. Their reading of the scripture convinced them that God had only established one regular holy day under the new covenant, and that was the Lord’s Day each Sunday. Beyond that, they did believe that the scripture allowed the consecration of occasional Days of Fasting and Humiliation to beseech the Lord for deliverance from a particular trial, as well as occasional Days of Thanksgiving to praise the Lord for his extraordinary provision. Both were comparatively solemn observances, characterized by lengthy religious services full of prayer, praise, instruction, and exhortation.
From the Pilgrims’ perspective, their first formal celebration of a Day of Thanksgiving in Plymouth came nearly two years later, in July 1623. We’re comparatively unfamiliar with it because, frankly, we get bored with the Pilgrims once they’ve carved the first turkey. We condense their story to three key events—the Mayflower Compact, the Landing at Plymouth Rock, and the First Thanksgiving—and quickly lose interest thereafter. In reality, the Pilgrims’ struggle for survival continued at least another two years.
This was partly due to the criminal mismanagement of the London financiers who bankrolled the colony. Only weeks after their 1621 harvest celebration, the Pilgrims were surprised by the arrival of the ship Fortune. The thirty-five new settlers on board would nearly double their depleted ranks. Unfortunately, they arrived with few clothes, no bedding or pots or pans, and “not so much as biscuit cake or any other victuals,” as William Bradford bitterly recalled. Indeed, the London merchants had not even provisioned the ship’s crew with sufficient food for the trip home.
The result was that, rather than having “good plenty” for the winter, the Pilgrims, who had to provide food for the Fortune’s return voyage and feed an additional thirty-five mouths throughout the winter, once again faced the prospect of starvation. Fearing that the newcomers would “bring famine upon us,” the governor immediately reduced the weekly food allowance by half. In the following months hunger “pinch[ed] them sore.” By May they were almost completely out of food. It was no longer the season for waterfowl, and if not for the shellfish in the bay, and the little grain they were able to purchase from passing fishing boats, they very well might have starved.
The harvest of 1622 provided a temporary reprieve from hunger, but it fell far short of their needs for the coming year, and by the spring of 1623 the Pilgrims’ situation was again dire. As Bradford remembered their trial, it was typical for the colonists to go to bed at night not knowing where the next day’s nourishment would come from. For two to three months they had no bread or beer at all and “God fed them” almost wholly “out of the sea.”
Adding to their plight, the heavens closed up around the third week in May, and for nearly two months it rained hardly at all. The ground became parched, the corn began to wither, and hopes for the future began dying as well. When another boatload of settlers arrived that July, they were “much daunted and dismayed” by their first sight of the Plymouth colonists, many of whom were “ragged in apparel and some little better than half naked.” The Pilgrims, for their part, could offer the newcomers nothing more than a piece of fish and a cup of water.
In the depths of this trial the Pilgrims were sure of this much: it was God who had sent this great drought it was the Lord who was frustrating their “great hopes of a large crop.” This was not the caprice of “nature,” but the handiwork of the Creator who worked “all things according to the counsel of His will” (Ephesians 1:11). Fearing that He had done this thing for their chastisement, the community agreed to set apart “a solemn day of humiliation, to seek the Lord by humble and fervent prayer, in this great distress.”
Edward Winslow, unknown artist, 1651
As Edward Winslow explained, their hope was that God “would be moved hereby in mercy to look down upon us, and grant the request of our dejected souls. . . . But oh the mercy of our God!” Winslow exulted, “who was as ready to hear, as we to ask.” The colonists awoke on the appointed day to a cloudless sky, but by the end of the prayer service—which lasted eight to nine hours—it had become overcast, and by morning it had begun to rain, as it would continue to do for the next fourteen days. Bradford marveled at the “sweet and gentle showers . . . which did so apparently revive and quicken the decayed corn.” Winslow added, “It was hard to say whether our withered corn or drooping affections were most quickened or revived.”
Overwhelmed by God’s gracious intervention, the Pilgrims immediately called for another providential holiday. “We thought it would be great ingratitude,” Winslow explained, if we should “content ourselves with private thanksgiving for that which by private prayer could not be obtained. And therefore another solemn day was set apart and appointed for that end wherein we returned glory, honor, and praise, with all thankfulness, to our good God.” This occasion, likely held at the end of July, 1623, perfectly matches the Pilgrims’ definition of a thanksgiving holy day. It was a “solemn” observance, as Winslow noted, called to acknowledge a very specific, extraordinary blessing from the Lord. In sum, it was what the Pilgrims themselves would have viewed as their “First Thanksgiving” in America, and we have all but forgotten it.
As we celebrate Thanksgiving tomorrow, perhaps we might remember both of these occasions. The Pilgrims’ harvest celebration of 1621 is an important reminder to see God’s gracious hand in the bounty of nature. But the Pilgrims’ holiday of 1623—what they would have called “The First Thanksgiving”—more forthrightly challenges us to look for God’s ongoing, supernatural intervention in our lives.
Have a great day tomorrow.
Excerpt from "A Complete and Graphic Account of the Crédit Mobilier Investigation"
When the charge was made that Mr. Colfax had been a purchaser of Crédit Mobilier stock from Mr. Ames, that gentleman denied it.… The substance of this sworn statement [before the Poland Committee investigating the scandal] may be thus stated in Mr. Colfax's own words:
"I state explicitly, that no one ever gave, or offered to give me any shares of stock in the Crédit Mobilier or the Union Pacific Railroad. I have never received, nor hadtendered to me anydividends in cash, stock, or bondsaccruing upon any stock, in either of said organizations."
Mr. Ames had from the first included Mr. Colfax in his list of the Congressmen who had purchased stock from him. Upon Mr. Colfax's denial of the charge, he declared his ability to prove hisassertion.
On the 24th of January, Mr. Ames testified that he had purchased twenty shares of Crédit Mobilier stock for Mr. Colfax, in December, 1867, at the request of that gentleman. Mr. Colfax not having the money at the time, Mr. Amesadvanced it. Soon after this, there was an eighty per cent dividend declared in Union Pacific bonds. Mr. Ames stated that he had sold these, and had applied the proceeds to paying for the stock bought for Mr. Colfax, afterdeducting theinterest. Mr.Colfax then gave him a check on theSergeant-at-Arms for $534.72, the balance of the purchase money. Mr. Ames further stated that in June there was a cash dividend on the Crédit Mobilier of $1200, which he gave to Mr. Colfax by a check payable to "S. C. or bearer," drawn on the Sergeant-at-Arms of the House.
Mr. Colfaxemphatically denied Mr. Ames's statement, and declared that he had never received the $1200, or any of the stock or money to which Ames referred. The books of the Sergeant-at-Arms were produced, and exhibited to the Committee. It was found that in June, 1868, Mr. Ames had drawn a check on the Sergeant-at-Arms to "S. C. or bearer," and that this check had been paid to some one. This much of Mr. Ames's statement beingsustained, Mr. Colfax found himselfobliged to show that the check in question had not been paid to him.…
The Committee decided to examine the accounts of the First National Bank of Washington City, where Mr. Colfax's accounts were kept. The books were produced before the Committee on the 28th ofJanuary , and Mr. Colfax's account examined. [According to the committee,] "There appeared a credit of $1968.63, dated June 22, 1868, two days after the date of Ames's check to 'S. C.' on the Sergeant-at-Arms, and one day after that check was paid. This furnished onlypresumptive proof of the deposit of $1200, but all doubt was removed when the cashier produced a deposit ticket, bearing Mr. Colfax's signature, in which the $1968.63 wasitemized, $1200 being cash, and the remainderdrafts or checks.…"
Thecircumstantial evidence against him [Colfax] wasappalling. His best friends stoodaghast, and pitied him from their very souls.
Mr. Colfax repeated his denials respecting the stock, and declared that he would show that the $1200 deposited by him was received from another source. If he could succeed in doing this, hisvindication would be complete.… On the 11th of February , he appeared before the Committee, accompanied by Judge Hale, whom he had retained as hiscounsel, and made a statement under oath that the $1200, which he had deposited in cash in the First National Bank of Washington, on the 22d of June, 1868, was composed of two sums, of $1000 and $200 respectively. The $1000, he stated, he had received from a Mr. George F. Nesbitt, of New York, who had written him a letter congratulating him upon his nomination for the Vice-Presidency, and enclosing a $1000 bill to be used for political purposes during the campaign. The sender of the gift, Mr. Nesbitt, died a few years ago, and the letter in which the money was sent had, Mr. Colfax stated, been destroyed. Mr. Colfax submitted the evidence of several members of his family in proof of thereception of Nesbitt's letter. They swore to a recollection of it, and stated the incidents connected with its reception. The other $200 Mr. Colfax stated was received from his step-father, Mr. Matthews, in payment of money borrowed from Mr. Colfax some time before. Mr. Colfax repeated his former denials concerning the stock and Ames's check.
This statement of Mr. Colfax was not accepted by the public assatisfactory. It amounted to this, in part: That a leading business man of New York had entrusted to the mail in a letter, a bill for $1000 dollars, without making any note of it, the man was dead, and the letter could not be found. Against this explanation was Oakes Ames's sworn statement, the proofs afforded by the books of the Sergeant-at-Arms, and the suspicious deposit of the exact amount of Ames's check.…
In order to get at the facts of the case, for it was clear to all that either Oakes Ames or Schuyler Colfax was guilty ofperjury, a member of the Poland Committee made an investigation of Mr. Colfax's deposits in the First National Bank of Washington. He found that two checks or drafts from Mr. Nesbitt to Mr. Colfax had been deposited by the latter in 1868, one in April, and the other on the 13th of July, of that year. Each of these drafts was for $1000. This discovery did not help Mr. Colfax much. It showed that Mr. Nesbitt had twice sent Mr. Colfax the sum of $1000, and had taken theprecaution to insure the money against loss by sending each sum in the form of a draft payable to Mr. Colfax's order. This very precautioninclined people to doubt that Mr. Nesbitt would have been so reckless as to send Mr. Colfax a thousand dollarnote in anun-registered letter, only a short while before he took the precaution to send a similar sum by a draft.…
There the case rests at present. Mr. Colfax has still before him the task of proving that he received $1000 from Nesbitt in June, and did not receive $1200 from Oakes Ames. He is still entangled in the terrible web of circumstantial evidence against him. That he may escape from it and vindicate himself is the wish of all good men. There is not a public man in America whose vindication would be morecordially hailed by the people. The people do not wish to believe him guilty but they are appalled by the terrible mass of circumstantial evidence against him, and he must, in justice to himself, destroy this. It is the earnest wish of the writer, who has sought to present a simple statement of the facts of the case as far as they have been developed, that he may succeed.
The Isaac Winslow House was built circa 1699 for the Hon. Isaac Winslow (1671–1738) at the place named “Careswell” after their family home “Kerswell” in Worcestershire, England. This was the third house built on land granted to Gov. Edward Winslow (1595–1655) in the 1630s who erected the first homestead.
A Mayflower passenger and major leader in the early years of Plymouth Colony, Edward was three-times governor, intermediary with the Native Americans, as well as ambassador from the colony to England. His son Col. Josiah Winslow (1628–1680) also held the governor’s office, the first native-born to hold it, in addition to leading the Colonial Militia in the 1675 “Great Swamp Fight,” the decisive battle of King Phillip’s War.
Judge Isaac Winslow was Josiah’s son. He also held many prominent positions in the colony, both military and civil. He was the judge of the Probate Court at Plymouth, chief justice of the Court of Common Pleas, and president of the Council of the Province of Massachusetts Bay.
His house was inherited by son Gen. John Winslow (1703–1774) who had an outstanding military career as a major general in the British service. He participated in several military campaigns, starting with the War of Jenkin’s Ear from 1740–1741. At Nova Scotia (Acadia) from 1742–1755 he assisted the British in the removal of the French Acadians, an event commemorated by Longfellow in his epic poem “Evangeline.” Lastly, at Lake Champlain in 1756, he commanded Fort William Henry.
After the death of John, the property was passed to his son, Dr. Isaac Winslow. Isaac had a large medical practice serving southeastern Massachusetts and was well known for his work with the smallpox inoculations. He embraced the British cause during the American Revolution and was one of Marshfield’s leading loyalists, the house becoming the center for Tory activities. When war broke out, most properties belonging to those loyal to England were seized by the Great and General Court of Massachusetts. It is believed that because Isaac was so admired and beloved as a physician by the people, his property was not confiscated.
Dr. Isaac Winslow was the last of the family to occupy the house. After his death in 1822 the estate was sold to honor debt. It then was put up for auction in 1825, divided and purchased by local families. The house and remaining land were later purchased by neighbor Daniel Webster.
Lawyer, statesman, Senator, Secretary of State, and “Farmer of Marshfield,” Daniel Webster held high respect for the venerable house he called it the “Winslow Place” and was the first to invest in preserving it. While never living in the house, he had tenant farmers. In the parlor, on September 1, 1848, he spoke to the people of Marshfield, at their request, on the subject of slavery and his opposition to President Martin Van Buren’s position. On the day of his funeral in October of 1852, dignitaries in attendance gathered in the same room waiting to be led down the road, now Webster Street, by surviving son Fletcher Webster to the services at their family home. Among the guests was President-Elect Franklin Pierce.
Fletcher inherited the house and sold it at auction in 1855 before dying at the Second Battle of Bull Run in 1862. However, after the Webster mansion burned in 1878, his wife Caroline and three children moved into the house, remaining until 1880 when their house was rebuilt. During her residency, she built the barn that is now used as a meeting room.
Virtually untouched by modernization, the house passed through several more ownerships by Charles and Ezra Wright, Tilden Ames, and lastly Nathan Holbrook who in 1920 sold to three local residents interested in restoring the property: Edward Ford, John Gutterson, and Edgar Sherrill. They called themselves the Winslow Associates, and the Historic Winslow House Association was born. From that day forward, the restoration and preservation of this classic first period colonial mansion that embodies this nation’s early history has been a labor of love for those who have persevered over the years to present is as seen today.
Thanks to Living Large and Heather Brown for starting this profile.
Heather Brown merged Winslow-828 and Winslow-538 on 04 February 2014.
- Holton, David-Parsons. Winslow Memorial. Family Records of the Winslows and Their Descendants in America (D-P. Holton, M.D., Publisher, New York, 1877)
- Sinnott, Mary Elizabeth Annals of the Sinnott, Rogers. Allied Families (Sinnott, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,1905)
Thanks to Greg Rose for starting this profile. Click the Changes tab for the details of contributions by Greg and others.