Information

Roman Satyrs Floor Mosaic



Archaeologists Find Statue of Egyptian Goddess Isis and Satyr’s Head at Roman Villa

A statue of Isis, the Ancient Egyptian goddess, and a head from a human-sized statue of a satyr, a companion of Dionysus, have been discovered at the Roman villa estate and nymphaeum near Bulgaria’s Kasnakovo. Photo: TV grab from bTV

By Ivan Dikov / 11.17.2017

A 2 nd century AD marble statue of the Ancient Egyptian goddess Isis, who was also worshipped in the wider Greco-Roman world, and a marble head of a satyr, a male companion of ancient wine god Dionysus, have been discovered by archaeologists at a Roman villa and nymphaeum near the town of Kasnakovo in Southern Bulgaria.

The discovery of the ancient marble statues has been announced at the Dimitrovgrad Museum of History by archaeologist Assist. Prof. Veselka Katsarova from the National Institute and Museum of Archaeology in Sofia.

Katsarova has excavated the Antiquity archaeological site near Kasnakovo in the past decade. In 2015, her team found intact decorative mosaics in one of Roman villa buildings.

The Ancient Roman villa estate near the town of Kasnakovo, Dimitrovgrad Municipality, in Southern Bulgaria, existed from the middle of the 2 nd century AD until the middle of the 4 th century AD.

It is known for its nymphaeum, i.e. a shrine dedicated to the nymphs and Aphrodite by a Thracian veteran from the Roman military known as the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite. The nymphaeum consists of three architecturally decorated mineral water springs.

The place originally became an Ancient Thracian rock shrine in the Early Iron Age. It is known especially for the still surviving inscription in Ancient Greek left by the founder and owner of the Roman villa. Learn more about the inscription in the Background Infonotes below.

[LEFT]: The newly discovered statue of Isis is 80 cm tall. Photo: Maritsa Haskovo daily
[RIGHT]: The satyr head was part of a human-sized marble statue from an inner yard. Photo: Maritsa Haskovo daily

The newly discovered statue of Ancient Egyptian goddess Isis, whose cult later spread throughout the Roman Empire and the wider Greco-Roman world, is the first statue of Isis to have ever been found in Bulgaria, lead archaeologist Katsarova notes.

In her words, only parts of statues which are believed to have been of Isis have been discovered in Bulgaria so far but none of them is certain to have depicted that particular ancient deity.

The newly found statue from the Roman villa and nymphaeum (the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite) near Kasnakovo has been identified as depicting Isis through comparison with similar sculptures kept in museums in Rome, Italy, and Vienna, Austria – as well as by the depiction of the so called “knot of Isis”, the tyet, i.e. the Ancient Egyptian herophyph of the goddess, found on the statue’s chest.

A similar statue of Isis has been found in an Isis temple in Bulgaria’s neighbor to the southwest, the Republic of Macedonia.

“The marble statue [of Isis] is 80 cm tall, and lacks arms and a head. Regardless of that, it is a wonderful work [of sculpture], and is perfectly preserved,” Katsarova says, as cited by BTA.

“The statue has been found in a large room with a mosaic floor, part of a residential building,” she explains.

A marble head of a satyr, a male companion of ancient wine god Dionysus with horse-like features, has also been found a month ago during the latest excavations at the Roman villa and the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite at Bulgaria’s Kasnakovo. In 2015, a satyr mask was discovered at emporium Pistiros, also in Southern Bulgaria.

Katsarova says her team at first thought that the satyr head had been part of a stone pedestal. However, subsequently, they have found evidence that it had been part of a life-sized statue, probably about 165 centimeters tall.

Both the Isis statue and the satyr statue are hypothesized to have been used as decorations – the Isis statue in the middle of possibly the most important room of the estate, and the satyr statue in an inner yard.

“When the villa was destroyed, the statue fell on the floor. It used to stand in the center of one of the most monumental rooms in the building which is decorated with floor mosaics,” the archaeologist says.

Both finds are dated to the middle of the 2 nd century AD, and, more specifically, to the period between 138 and 160 AD.

Archaeologist Veselka Katsarova (left) and Dimitrovgrad Mayor Ivo Dimov (right) present the finds at the Dimitrovgrad Museum of History. Photos: Dimitrovgrad Museum of History

Katsarova has also announced that a joint Bulgarian-Austrian research project is going to study the origin of the marble of which the statues of Isis and the satyr were made. Both items appear to have been made of the same material.

“The finds are very valuable, and confirm that the person who owned the estate had tremendous financial resources, and was an extremely influential person in [the Roman province of] Thracia (Thrace),” she has emphasized.

The archaeologist hypothesizes that the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite was not a public place but was part of the estate of the nearby Roman villa owned by the couple of Titus Flavius, a Thracian veteran from the Roman military, and his wife, Claudia Montana.

“Our research in the past 10 years has led me to believe that in this place the worship of the Nymphs and Aphrodite occurred inside the family of a Hellenized family couple who owned this estate. It was not a public shrine,” she says.

The researcher has also pointed out that in the said period the cult of the originally Egyptian goddess Isis was very popular in the part of Roman Empire that is now Bulgaria and its region. One of her hypotheses is that Claudia Montana was a priestess of the Isis cult.

[LEFT]: Archaeologist Veselka Katsarova poses with her finds. Photo: Darik Haskovo
[RIGHT]: Photo: BTA

Katsarova has described the two statues as the most valuable artifacts discovered at the Kasnakovo archaeological site to date.

“Dimitrovgrad Municipality is going to keep investing in this archaeological site. We intend to carry out a new geophysical survey in order to expand the area of the estate and the cult site that is researched,” Dimitrovgrad Municipality Mayor Ivo Dimov has said.

About 10,000 tourists visit the Roman estate and the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite.

The discovery of the Isis statue and the satyr head has been announced as part of a conference at the Haskovo Regional Museum of History dedicated to the 90 th anniversary since the start of museum activities in the area.

After their restoration, the Isis statue and the satyr head found at the Roman estate and the nymphaeum in Kasnakovo will become part of the collection of the History Museum in Bulgaria’s Dimitrovgrad.

[LEFT]: An aerial view of the nymphaeum, i.e. the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite, with its three mineral springs, which is part of the Ancient Roman villa of Titus Flavius and Claudia Montana built in the 2nd century AD. The place originally was an Ancient Thracian rock shrine dating back to the Early Iron Age. Photo: archaeologist Veselka Katsarova.
[RIGHT]: An aerial view of much of the Roman villa estate near Bulgaria’s Kasnakovo, with the nymphaeum, i.e. the Shrine of the Nymphs and Aphrodite visible on the right (also view the photo above). Photo: archaeologist Veselka Katsarova.


Swastika on Roman mosaic floor

Roman mosaic floor with a large representation of the swastika. The object is located in one of the houses on Via dell’Abbondanza in Pompeii.

The word “swastika” comes from Sanskrit and means “bringing good luck”. The swastika is a religious symbol that is present in most cultures and religions of the world. Also in the Greco-Roman world, the swastika was used and often appeared in ornaments and art.

IMPERIUM ROMANUM needs your support!

Your financial help is needed, in order to maintain and develop the website. Even the smallest amounts will allow me to pay for further corrections, improvements on the site and pay the server. I believe that I can count on a wide support that will allow me to devote myself more to my work and passion, to maximize the improvement of the website and to present history of ancient Romans in an interesting form.

News from world of ancient Rome

If you want to be up to date with news and discoveries from the world of ancient Rome, subscribe to the newsletter.

I encourage you to buy interesting books about the history of ancient Rome and antiquity.


Floor Mosaic Depicting Dionysos's Discovery of Ariadne on Naxos

The central panel of this extraordinary mosaic depicts a scene from Classical mythology, the moment when Dionysos, the Greek god of wine, first sees his future wife, the Cretan princess Ariadne. It seems to have been a popular subject for floor mosaics in Syria during the third and fourth centuries A.D.1

Five figures stand in a hilly landscape, each identified by an inscription. On the left is the elderly, white-bearded Maron (5*:A6),2 who personifies the agricultural bounty of Thrace, the birthplace of Dionysos and a region celebrated in antiquity for the high quality of its wine. In his role as a member of the god's immediate circle, Maron is represented here not in Thracian clothing, but in the guise of Silenos, a mantle slung around his hips and a leafy wreath around his head, the top of which is bald. With the thyrsus (wand) he holds in his right hand, Maron points toward the princess.

To Maron's right is a young, unbearded Dionysos (-286_C8C),3 whose cult celebrated the fertility of nature in a series of orgiastic rites. In the hand of the god's outstretched right arm is a flat, circular object with a dark rim. With his other hand, he pulls together the fluttering edges of his himation in front of his lower torso. In addition to wearing his customary leafy wreath, the god also has a nimbus encircling his head, which is not one of his usual attributes.


What’s new?

Six Roman frescoes returned to Pompeii and Stabiae

Six Roman frescoes stolen from ancient villas between the 1970s and 2012 have been returned to Pompeii and Stabiae. The objects felt into the hands of private art collectors.

Colosseum will have new arena in 2023

The Italian government finally approved plans to create a remote-controlled, foldable deck at the Colosseum. The project was prepared by Milan Ingegneria. The new area will be located inside the building interestingly, the original surface was removed in the 19th century to reveal underground structures.

Illegal treasure hunters have sneaked into Roman structures in northern England

Illegal treasure hunters entered the area of ​​the remains of a Roman villa in the village of Eastfield (northern England) at night and destroyed it. Interestingly, the information about the discovery appeared in the media not much earlier.

Roman phone case

On Amazon you can find truly unique products related to ancient Rome. The offer includes, for example, cover for phone with Roman shield – scutum.

IMPERIUM ROMANUM needs your support!

Your financial help is needed, in order to maintain and develop the website. Even the smallest amounts will allow me to pay for further corrections, improvements on the site and pay the server. I believe that I can count on a wide support that will allow me to devote myself more to my work and passion, to maximize the improvement of the website and to present history of ancient Romans in an interesting form.

News from world of ancient Rome

If you want to be up to date with news and discoveries from the world of ancient Rome, subscribe to the newsletter.

I encourage you to buy interesting books about the history of ancient Rome and antiquity.


The Archaeological Museum of Kissamos: Crete, Greece

Approximately 40 kilometres west of Chania old town, you’ll find the town of Kastelli Kissamos. Despite being smaller, it is no less rich historically, and its name alone bears both the ancient Greek (Kastelli) and Venetian (Kissamos) monikers. A narrow road littered with tavernas, traditional fishmongers and cafés leads to a square where The Archaeological Museum is located, in an imposing repurposed Venetian monument known as Diikitirio – ‘the Headquarters’. The museum focusses on the areas’ Minoan, Hellenistic and Roman periods and displays household items, pottery, coins, jewellery, gravestones (stele), relief sculptures, marble free standing sculptures and mosaics. Minoan artefacts from excavations at nearby Nopigia which date back to 9 th – 8 th century BC dominate the opening gallery, and the historical development of western city-states in Crete is explained through the evolution of these objects from primitive Minoan artefacts onto more advanced examples from the Hellenistic era (4 th – 1 st century BC). This development is evident in one of my favourite items on display in the museum a Hellenistic marble sculpture of a Satyr in which the sculptor has managed to capture the impish nature of the subject to perfection. As you move to the second floor, a small excavation taking place under the stairs of the building itself, highlights how inescapable archaeology is in this area! The second floor is devoted to findings from Kissamos, and houses two stunning floor mosaics from local Greco-Roman urban villas. The first is huge measuring 9.7 metres by 8 metres and features Dionysus surrounded by hunting and drinking scenes associated with Dionysiac worship, and the second depicting Horae and the four seasons is more humble in scale but in perfect condition. Despite only stopping in Kissamos to buy a drink, I’m so pleased I did, and got to experience another archaeology museum putting local history in the limelight with some outstanding finds.

The exterior of the museum One of the ground floor gallery spaces showing excavated finds Hellenistic sculpture of a Satyr The mosaic floors on display on the second floor


1,700-year old Roman villa with magnificent mosaics and astounding treasures discovered in Libya

Last year, we talked about how some conscientious Libyan citizens had taken up arms to protect their country’s Roman heritage. Well this time around, we are once again witness to the magnificence of ancient Roman legacy on Libyan soil, by virtue of the unearthing (by researchers at Warsaw University) of an impressive villa at Ptolemais, which was once a major trading hub of Cyrenaica. This Roman villa in question is archaeologically complemented by a plethora of features, including impressive sculptures, intricate mosaics and opulent treasures.

Now historically, Ptolemais, named after one of the rulers of Ptolemaic Egypt, probably Ptolemy III Euergetes (246–221 BC), originally started out as a small Greek trading post in 7th century BC. By late 3rd century BC, the tiny settlement was transformed into a walled city that enclosed a formidable area of 280 hectares, and as such possibly served as the headquarters of the Ptolemaic governor of the region. By 1st century BC, Ptolemais was occupied by the Romans, and it formed one of the cities of the Pentapolis of Cyrenaica, a province denoting the eastern coast of Libya.

However in spite of the city’s strategic location, the urban area deteriorated under the rule of the Roman Republic, so much so that it was used as a safe harbor by the pirates operating in the region. But the reemergence of the power of the Roman Empire in 1st century AD halted the dilapidation of the earlier century, and thus Ptolemais was once again restored, this time with a flurry of Romanized buildings and facilities. The unearthed Roman villa in question here mirrors this renewed urban characteristics of the Libyan settlement, which suggests that Ptolemais was a fairly important trading city circa 4th century AD. In fact, historical events also allude to such a civic progression, especially since this city survived the calamitous earthquake of 365 AD that managed to destroy many of the other nearby urban areas of Cyrenaica.

Reverting to the fascinating find of the Roman villa, the archaeologists were pleasantly surprised by the ritzy treasure hoard that comprised a whopping 553 sestercii silver and bronze coins, possibly dating from 3rd century AD. Most of these monetary specimens were found from a particular room inside the villa that was also used for manufacturing terracotta lamps, thus suggesting how the coins pertained to the earnings of a local craftsman.

But beyond treasures, it is the flurry of incredible mosaics boasted by the Roman villa (around its courtyard in classic peristyle arrangement) that really notches it up on the artistic as well as architectural level. To that end, one of the splendid specimens depicts a sleeping Dionysus and Ariadne (daughter of the fabled Minoan king Minos who kept the Minotaur in his labyrinth). Yet another mosaic portrays the Achillean cycle, which entails the compilation of epic poems about Achilles’ adventures. These artworks are accompanied by separate mosaics in both the courtyard and the dining room, keeping in line with the ostentatious tastes of the Roman owners of the domus.

The Libyan Roman villa also showcases its fair share of wall frescoes that complemented the floor-based mosaics. Some of them represent intricate geometrical patterns, while others portray figure-oriented paintings, mainly depicting various species of birds. Unfortunately, the flurry of artistic endeavors was probably halted by the occurrence of the aforementioned earthquake in 365 AD. Anyhow, the city of Ptolemais itself survived till 5th century AD, but the thriving trading hub was ‘vandalized’ by the Vandals in 428 AD during their invasion of North Africa. And while Justinian I rebuilt parts of the African settlement (circa 6th century), Ptolemais was finally razed by the Arabs in 7th century AD.


Mosaic Making

Adapt these activities to the age, interest, and skill levels of your group.

Mosaics are a great way to introduce more color into a garden, especially when plants stop flowering throughout the winter months. Pictures or designs made up of pieces of smaller materials, mosaics can be made with pretty much anything – new, old, recycled, or found materials such as tiles, beads, buttons, glass, and mirrors. Natural materials such as shells, stalks, and leaves found in the garden also work well for certain mosaic projects as long as they have been protected for exterior use.

Making an outdoor mosaic is also a great way to personalize a garden space and give it a unique look and feel. You can mosaic most anything in a garden – flowerpots and containers, paths and walkways, benches and tables, walls and fences, water fountains, and garden tools such as trowel handles and wheelbarrows. The design of the mosaic can be simply decorative or it can depict natural elements such as the very plants and insects that are found in the garden.

The mosaic making process is both a leisurely activity as well as productive endeavor. After only a few hours of steady work, an incredible mosaic image emerges, thus making it an immensely satisfying activity that appeals to youth and adults alike.

The Benefits of Mosaic Projects

  • Creating mosaics with young people can help to improve their self-esteem through empowerment, motivation, ownership, and inclusion.
  • Working together as a group on a mosaic project improves teamwork and communication.
  • Mosaics are a very versatile project — they can be an individual or collective enterprise, they can be simple or elaborate, or can be made from recycled and found materials.
  • Children and youth will be interested in this art medium, which is similar to the collage technique. The materials allow for creativity and the results of a mosaic project are almost instantaneous.
  • Youth and adults are all brought together in making a very original, important contribution to their community that because of its permanence is a continuous source of pride.

A Little Mosaic History

  • Mosaics have been created and used decoratively throughout the world and since ancient times.
  • The Romans popularized mosaics as an art medium – on indoor and outdoor walls, floors, ceilings, and in gardens.
  • The Greeks created mosaics from pebbles that had been softened by the sea. They created pictorial mosaics that told a story, rather than being simply decorative.
  • The world-famous Spanish artist Gaudi created mosaic installations in Barcelona, Spain using primarily recycled and found materials. He covered entire buildings from floor to ceiling with mosaic art. It since has become a world-renown public art installation that people flock to Spain to visit.
  • Mosaics made from pebbles were important features in gardens in China. The Chinese made mosaic pathways that symbolized the natural world around them. Each pebble was precisely arranged to maintain the balance of Yin (feminine force of nature) and Yang (masculine force of nature) in the garden.

Mosaic Project Ideas

  • Create a gift item such as a mosaic picture frame or mosaic jewelry box. Put a picture of your garden inside the frame or make seed jewelry from seeds collected in the garden to store inside the jewelry box.
  • Create mosaic stepping stones for a decorative garden pathway.
  • Create a mosaic mural in your community—put it in a prominent public place such as a garden or park, at a farmers market, or on the wall of a grocery store.
  • Create a mosaic in your garden that features your school or organization’s name and logo.
  • Create mosaic seating in the garden on benches and small stools.
  • Mosaic terracotta pots and planters.

Mosaic Methods
There are two different methods that can be used in creating a mosaic. The direct method is when the mosaic is constructed directly on the base material, which is the site of the project. An example of a direct method would be creating a mosaic on a brick wall located in a garden.

The indirect method is when the mosaic is created on a base material offsite and then later installed onsite when it is convenient. An example of this would be creating a mosaic on a tile and then mounting the tile with concrete onto a wall. This method is useful because it allows you to make a mosaic indoors, so for example, you could make it during the winter and then install it when the weather warms up in the spring or summer.

Basic Mosaic Materials

  • Nippers (specialized clippers used for cutting mosaic tile pieces)
  • Trowel
  • Palette knife
  • Safety goggles
  • Rubber gloves
  • Dust mask
  • Tesserae*
  • Adhesive*
  • Grout*

*Note about the materials:
Tesserae are pieces of ceramic, glass, stone, or other materials used to create a mosaic design.

  • Try to re-use old or recycled materials as tesserae whenever possible, such as broken ceramic tiles, stained glass, mirrors, beach glass, china, and pottery.

Adhesives are used to help the tesserae adhere to the base material.

  • For a plastic or metal base, use exterior tile adhesive.
  • For a ceramic or concrete base, use exterior cement-based adhesive.
  • For other projects, use acrylic adhesive or latex-based adhesives (often called mastic).

Grout is used to fill the spaces between the tesserae, adding strength and durability to the mosaic. Also, grout joints bring linear aesthetic quality to a design.

  • All grout contains Portland cement. It is available in a range of colors and either sanded or non-sanded. Non-sanded is fine for most projects.
  • Mosaics designed for outdoors must use water and frost-resistant cement and grout.
  • Mix dry powdered grout with a small amount of water for a thick, smooth consistency similar to heavy mud.
  • Mortar is a mixture of sand, Portland cement, and water that can be used as grout for exterior mosaic installations.
Connections to NYS Learning Standards

Activity: SEED MOSAIC PLANTER
Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics
STANDARD 2 Students acquire knowledge and ability necessary to maintain a healthy environment. Students develop community approaches to enhance the quality of their environment.
STANDARD 3 Students understand and manage personal and community resources. Students collect seeds and beans from gardens and other outdoor areas.

Mathematics, Science and Technology
STANDARD 1 Students use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design to pose questions and develop solutions.
STANDARD 2 Students access, generate, process, and transfer information using technologies.
STANDARD 3 Students understand math and become mathematically confident by communication and reasoning. Look at recurring patterns.
STANDARD 4 Students understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories as they identify, decorate with, and then plant seeds and beans.
STANDARD 5 Students apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use, and evaluate products. Students design and model a planter.
STANDARD 6 Students understand and apply relationships and common themes that connect math, science, and technology. Students use simple instruments.
STANDARD 7 Students apply knowledge and skills of math, science, and technology to address problems. Students learn how to improve their environment.

English Language Arts
STANDARD 1 Students listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. Students collect data, facts, and ideas, discovering relationships, concepts, and generalizations, and using knowledge from oral, written, and electronic sources. Students use books and online galleries for inspirational photos and ideas.

The Arts
STANDARD 2 Students make use of materials and resources for participation in the arts (sketches, designing mosaic planters).
STANDARD 3 Students will analyze visual characteristics of the natural environment and explain social, cultural, psychological, and environmental dimensions of the visual arts. Students respond critically to variety of works in the arts.
STANDARD 4 Students understand personal and cultural forces that shape artistic communications. Students explore concept of art made with nature.

Social Studies
STANDARD 2 Students in their study of world history can explain some practices as found in particular civilizations and cultures such as traditions, language and literature. Mosaic planters are a traditional Mexican art form used for harvest festivals and ceremonies.

Activity: STEPPING STONES
Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics
STANDARD 2 Students acquire knowledge and ability necessary to maintain a healthy environment.
STANDARD 3 Students understand and manage personal and community resources. Students participate in a school community service project. Students use tesserae (marbles, tiles, broken pieces of china, stones for mosaic stepping stones).

Mathematics, Science, and Technology
STANDARD 1 Students use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design to pose questions and develop solutions.
STANDARD 2 Students access, generate, process, and transfer information using technologies.
STANDARD 3 Students understand math and become mathematically confident by communication and reasoning. Look at recurring patterns.
STANDARD 4 Students understand and apply scientific concepts, principles, and theories. Colorful mosaic designs will help attract various types of small animals like birds and butterflies, which students can observe, study, and draw.
STANDARD 5 Students apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use, and evaluate products.
STANDARD 6 Students understand and apply relationships and common themes that connect math, science, and technology. Students use simple instruments.
STANDARD 7 Students apply knowledge and skills of math, science, and technology to address problems. Students learn how to improve their environment.

English Language Arts
STANDARD 1 Students listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. Students collect data, facts, and ideas, discovering relationships, concepts, and generalizations, and using knowledge from oral, written, and electronic sources.

The Arts
STANDARD 2 Students make use of materials and resources for participation in the arts (templates, stepping stones).
STANDARD 3 Students will analyze visual characteristics of the natural environment and explain social, cultural, psychological, and environmental dimensions of the visual arts.
Students respond critically to variety of works in the arts.
STANDARD 4 Students understand personal and cultural forces that shape artistic communications. Students explore concept of art made with nature.

Activity: FLOWER MANDALA
Health, Physical Education, and Home Economics
STANDARD 2 Students acquire knowledge and ability necessary to maintain a healthy environment. Students develop skills of cooperation and collaboration. Students work constructively with others to accomplish a goal in a group activity. Students will follow directions as they demonstrate responsible personal and social behavior as limits are set on where and how much material to collect.
STANDARD 3 Students understand and manage personal and community resources. Students use natural and found materials.

Mathematics, Science, and Technology
STANDARD 1 Students use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering design to pose questions and develop solutions.
STANDARD 2 Students access, generate, process, and transfer information using technologies. Students can further transform their digital flower mandala photos into a kaleidoscopic design.
STANDARD 3 Students understand math and become mathematically confident by communication and reasoning. Look at recurring patterns.
STANDARD 4 Students understand and apply scientific concepts, principles and theories. Students can observe a truly ephemeral flower mandala if done outdoors as it changes and degrades as it is exposed to natural elements.
STANDARD 5 Students apply technological knowledge and skills to design, construct, use and evaluate products and systems to satisfy human and environmental needs.
STANDARD 6 Students understand and apply relationships and common themes that connect math, science, and technology. Students observe and describe interaction among components of simple systems and identify common things that can be considered to be systems (e.g., a plant population). Students use different types of models, such as graphs, sketches, diagrams, and maps, to represent various aspects of the real world. Students understand the interrelatedness of life on earth.
STANDARD 7 Students apply knowledge and skills of math, science, and technology to address problems. Evident as students improve their habitat.

English Language Arts
STANDARD 1 Students listen, speak, read, and write for information and understanding. Students collect data, facts, and ideas, discovering relationships, concepts, and generalizations, and using knowledge from oral, written, and electronic sources.
STANDARD 4 Students listen, speak, read, and write for social interaction. Students talk about process of design and harvesting mosaic materials.

The Arts

STANDARD 2 Students make use of materials and resources for participation in the arts. Students create a flower mandala.
STANDARD 3 Students will analyze visual characteristics of the natural environment and explain social, cultural, psychological, and environmental dimensions of the visual arts. Students respond critically to variety of works in the arts. Evident when students discuss Andy Goldsworthy’s artwork.
STANDARD 4 Students understand personal and cultural forces that shape artistic communications. Students explore concept of art made with nature.

Social Studies

STANDARD 2 Students in their study of world history can explain some practices as found in particular civilizations and cultures such as traditions, language and literature. Students learn that mandala is a Sanskrit word that roughly translates as “sacred circle.”


AD 300 – Roman Mosaics

Roman mosaics are perhaps the most spectacular Roman remains in Britain. Many of the finest come from Roman villas, where they reflect the high artistic tastes of the wealthy villa owners in the fourth century. Most are in colour, and many are figured, almost always with classical scenes.

David Neal has been painting mosaics for many years in his capacity of chief illustrator of English Heritage, but following his retirement, he joined with Steve Cosh to produce a corpus in four volumes of all the known mosaics in the country. Between them they set out to paint them all by hand: many of them are only known from oblique black-and-white photos, but by drawing them, and restoring the original colours where these are known, it is possible to show just what they originally looked like.

They hope to publish them in four volumes – providing they can find a suitable publisher.

The Croughton Mosaic

The worst mosaic in Britain? Well, it depends how you look at it.
In many ways this mosaic, from a villa at Croughton, near Banbury, is a fine vigorous piece, showing Bellerephon slaying the Chimera. But unfortunately the mosaicist miscalculated his layout – see how the border encircling the central roundel collides with the star shaped surround. One can almost sympathise with someone whose artistic temperament was not quite matched by his geometrical abilities.
But it is still, in its way, rather splendid!

The Leicester mosaic

David Neal nominated this as his finest mosaic from Roman Britain. It’s not a figured mosaic – but look at the detail – and the flair – of the design, which is of very superior quality using very small tesserae.

It was found Leicester, at the Blackfriars, and is now one of the highlights of the Jewry Wall Museum.

Keynsham mosaic

This is Steve Cosh’s favourite mosaic.
What you see is a Roman picture gallery. Whereas on the continent, villa owners usually preferred to have a single large figure, the British preferred to have several scenes showing the great pictures of antiquity.

Here we see Europa on the Bull, Minerva gazing at her reflection, and Achilles on Skyros hearing the war trumpet – three of the greatest – and most hackneyed – paintings in antiquity: it is rather like having the Mona Lisa, the Haywain, and van Gogh’s flowers all side by side on your verandah floor.

Keynsham, near Bath, was one of the greatest Roman villas, but unfortunately it was mostly destroyed when the Bath-Bristol road (the A4) went through it, fortunately on an embankment. Today however the mosaics languish in small parts in a cellar in Keynsham town hall, where Steve Cosh was able to make this superb reconstruction

The Woodchester mosaic

The Woodchester mosaic is the largest known mosaic from Roman Britain. It probably formed the audience chamber of a palace – there were four pillars at the corners of the central roundel – and each individual section is the size of a normal mosaic

When it was last uncovered in 1972, David Neal spent three weeks drawing it in situ and taking numerous colour photos. He then spent 18 months painting it – after which he couldn’t face the idea of painting another mosaic for a further 18 months.

This is based on a fuller account in Current Archaeology 157, published in May 1998


Features

Christian missionaries have taught people in Papua, New Guinea who had many gods before their conversion to recite the Hebrew Shema announcing only ONE GOD. Watch the video below.

GERMANICUS’ BAKERY

IN TRAJAN’S MARKET

BEST BREAD IN ROME!!

1. There were only 8 people in Noah’s Ark. T/F

2. Jonah was in the belly of the “whale” 4 days. T/F

3. The meaning in Hebrew of the word “day” always means a 24 hour period of time. T/F

4. All the names for our week days come from Roman and Norse/Anglo-Saxon gods. T/F

5. Jesus sent out 70 Disciples to preach His Good News.
T/F


Roman Heated Stone Floors

During the Roman Empire, the art of natural stone flooring reached new heights of innovation. Masterful Roman architects were able to design a series of floors that were actually heated from below these were the first below-surface radiant heating systems.

This process made use of large tiles propped up on joists so that a gap was created beneath the surface of the floor. A furnace was placed at one end of this gap and, while a vent was placed at the other end. The heat from the burning furnace was drawn across the bottom of the floor toward the vent, warming the tile above. These heated floors were used in the homes of the wealthy throughout the life of the empire.

After the fall of Rome, the art of making intricate stone and mosaic flooring was largely lost to Western Europe. While these skills would be preserved to some extent in Byzantium and through the Islamic world, European use of stone flooring was often relegated to scavenging pieces of material from old monuments and palaces that had fallen into disuse.


Watch the video: Making a Huge Roman Style Mosaic: A Visit with Travisanutto Artistic Mosaics (December 2021).